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199: Ceithir bric dheug

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

Gaelic Gàidhlig

Chan eil fhios agam cia mheud agaibh a tha nan iasgairean ach tha ceist agam dhuibh co-cheangailte ri iasgach. Ciamar a chanadh sibh ann an Gàidhlig “fourteen trout”? Smaoinichibh mu dheidhinn airson tiotan. Fourteen trout. ’S e a’ Ghàidhlig a th’ air “trout” – singilte – breac.

Thairis air a’ cheala-deug a dh’fhalbh, thug mi sùil air puingean a thog mi à faclair Gàidhlig ùr le Cailean Mark. An t-seachdain seo tha mi airson suathadh air cuspair ris a bheil Cailean a’ dèiligeadh gu math aig deireadh fhaclair far a bheil e a’ toirt sùil air gràmair is rudan eile – cunntadh.

An tug mi ùine gu leòr dhuibh airson na ceist a chuir mi oirbh? Dè a’ Ghàidhlig a th’ air “fourteen trout”? Uill, ’s e a th’ annceithir bric dheug. An d’ fhuair sibh sin? Bu mhath leam an suidheachadh a mhìneachadh oir tha eagal orm gun tuirt cuid agaibh ’s dòcha ceithir breac deug no ceithir breacan deug no ceithir bric deug, an àite ceithir bric dheug mar bu chòir.

Anns a’ chiad dol a-mach, ma tha fios agaibh gur e a’ Ghàidhlig a th’ air “trout” breac, ach mura h-eil fios agaibh dè chanas sibh airson trì no ceithir dhiubh, feumaidh sibh coimhead ann am faclair. Seo na chanas Cailean fhèin anns an fhaclair aige: “breac, bric, bric, ainmear fireann, trout: cho fallain ri breac: as healthy as a trout.” Is toigh leam an samhladh sin. Ma chanas cuideigin riut “Ciamar a tha thu?”, faodaidh tu ràdh, “tha cho fallain ri breac.”

Tha an treas facal anns an t-sreath – bric – ag innse dhuinn de chanas sinn airson trout plural. Airson ten trout, canaidh sinn deich bric. Airson eleven trout, canaidh sinn aona bhreac deug no aon bhreac deug. Nise carson is e deug an seo, an àite dheug? Uill, tha deug ag obair anns an aon dòigh ’s a tha buadhair no adjective. Nan biodh buadhair air a shèimheachadh, bidh deug air a shèimheachadh. Mura bitheadh am buadhair air a shèimheachadh, cha bhi deug air a shèimheachadh.

Tha breac fireann. Canaidh sinn breac beag no breac mòr. Mar sin ’s e deug a chanas sinn an àite dheug. Aona bhreac deug. Tha breac air a shèimheachadh as dèidh aon ach chan eil deug air a shèimheachadh idir. Le facal boireann mar uinneag, ge-tà, chanamaid aon uinneag dheug.

Le dà-dheug, tha deug an-còmhnaidh air a shèimheachadh le faclan fireann agus boireann. Mar sin, canaidh sinn dà chù dheug agus dà eaglais dheug. Agus, airson twelve trout – dà bhreac dheug.

Agus le trì-deug, feumaidh sinn smaoineachadh air na thachras do bhuadhair as dèidh “bric”. Canaidh sinn bric mhòra agus bric bheaga, nach can? Air an aon dòigh, canaidh sinn bodaich mhòra, balaich mhòra, is Sgitheanaich mhòra. Tha am buadhair air a shèimheachadh le ainmear a th’ air a dhèanamh iolra le caolachadh. Gheibh sibh mìneachadh air seo ann am Beurla anns na notaichean gràmair.

Mar sin, le bric, bidh deug air a shèimheachadh. Canaidh sinn trì bric dheug. Agus mar a thuirt mi na bu tràithe airson fourteen trout – ceithir bric dheug. Dè a’ Ghàidhlig, ma-thà, a th’ air nineteen women no seventeen Scotsmen? Innsidh mi dhuibh an ath-sheachdain. Agus tha ceist eile agam dhuibh. Dè a’ Ghàidhlig a th’ air hour is a bheil e boireann no fireann? Agus ciamar a chanas sinn “eleven o’ clock” is carson? Bithibh faiceallach! Agus coinnichidh sinn a-rithist an ath-sheachdain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: treas: third; sreath: series; boireann: feminine; an-còmhnaidh: always; Sgitheanaich mhòra: big Skyemen.

Abairtean na Litreach: cia mheud agaibh a tha nan iasgairean: how many of you are fishermen; ma tha sibh cho math air iasgach ’s a tha mise:if you are as good at fishing as I am; ’s dòcha nach bi fios agaibh: perhaps you won’t know; thairis air a’ cheala-deug a dh’fhalbh: over the past fortnight; tha mi airson suathadh air: I want to touch on; ris a bheil X a’ dèiligeadh: which X deals with; aig deireadh fhaclair: at the end of his dictionary; ma chanas cuideigin riut: if somebody says to you; nam biodh buadhair air a shèimheachadh: if an adjective were lenited; air a dhèanamh iolra le caolachadh: made plural by slenderisation; mar a thuirt mi na bu tràithe: as I said earlier; bithibh faiceallach: be careful; coinnichidh sinn a-rithist: we will meet again.

Puing-ghràmair na Litreach: The Litir this week explains why we say ceithir bric dheug for “fourteen trout”. The rules for the teens are as follows: firstly you can work out “eleven trout” and “twelve trout” easily because they do not use the plural form of the noun. So we use a form of breac rather than bric. Next you have to work out if deug is lenited or not. The rule is that, with regard to lenition, deugworks in the same way as an adjective. Breac is a masculine word – we say breac mòr in the nominative case, not breac mhòr.So for “eleven trout” we say aona bhreac deug, not aona bhreac dheug. Breac is lenited after aon but deugis not lenited at all. For twelve, a general rule operates – deugis always lenited, regardless of the gender of the noun. Thus “twelve trout” is dà bhreac dheug (dàlenites the noun); “twelve churches” (a feminine noun) is dà eaglais dheug. With thirteen, we need to use the plural form of breac,which is bric (dictionaries will give this). Now work out how you would say “large trout” (plural). Because breacis pluralised by slenderisation (of “ea” to “i”), the qualifying adjective is lenited (this is a general rule in Gaelic). Thus we say bric mhòra,not bric mòra. Now, deug operates in the same manner as an adjective. So for “thirteen trout” we say trì bric dheug. And for “fourteen trout” – ceithir bric dheug, and so on up to naoi bric dheug.

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: cho fallain ri breac: as healthy as a trout. This simile might be used as a Gaelic equivalent of “as fit as a fiddle”. Another Gaelic equivalent is cho fallain ri fiadh (as healthy as a deer).

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