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846: Am facal ‘Rathad’

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

Litir sheachdaineach do luchd-ionnsachaidh le clàr-fuaime, tar-sgrìobhadh is mìneachadh. A weekly letter to Gaelic learners with audio, transcription and explanation.

Tha an litir ag obrachadh leis an fhaclair. Tagh an taba ‘teacsa Gàidhlig’ agus tagh facal sam bith san teacsa agus fosglaidh am faclair ann an taba ùr agus bidh mìneachadh den fhacal ann. The letter is integrated with the dictionary. Select the tab ‘Gaelic text’ and choose any word and the dictionary will open and you will see the English explanation of the Gaelic word.

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Gaelic Gàidhlig

Tha am facal rathad inntinneach. Tha am faclair Teach Yourself Gaelic a’ toirt dhuinn na leanas mar chiall air an fhacal: road, route, way. Tha MacBheathain, anns an Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language ag ràdh gun tàinig am facal bhon Bheurla Mheadhanaich roade – le ‘e’ aig an deireadh – a’ ciallachadh ‘road’. ’S dòcha gur e as coireach gun tugadh a-steach facal-iasaid bhon Bheurla gun deach rathaidean a leasachadh ann an dùthaich na Beurla mus deach an leasachadh ann an Garbh-chrìochan na h-Alba.

Tha ‘rathad mòr’ a’ ciallachadh main road, trunk road, highway. Aig aon àm bhiodh na Gàidheil a’ gabhail ‘rathad mòr an rìgh’ air na rathaidean as motha eadar sgìrean. A bharrachd air sin, ’s e ‘rathad-iarainn’ a bhathar a’ gabhail air railway line, ged as e ‘loidhne-rèile’ a chanas daoine mar as trice an-diugh.

Tha ‘rathad’ air a chleachdadh ann an grunn ghnàthasan-cainnt, gun a bhith a’ ciallachadh road. Mar eisimpleir, canaidh sinna-mach às mo rathad no teich às mo rathad airson get out of my way. Ma tha cuideigin air bàs fhaighinn, dh’fhaodamaid a ràdh, ‘ Chaidh e às an rathad’. Air an làimh eile, ma chanas sinn ‘Chan eil e às an rathad’, tha e a’ ciallachadh it’s not too bad.

Leis gu bheil rathad a’ ciallachadh route, way, a bharrachd air road, bidh sinn ga chleachdadh ann an Gàidhlig ann an dòigh eadar-dhealaichte bho road ann am Beurla. Anns an t-seann aimsir, ge-tà, bhiodh daoine ag eadar-theangachadh rathad gu road nam biodh iad a’ bruidhinn ri luchd na Beurla.

Nam biodh iad, can, air ceum-coiseachd eadar dà bhaile bheag air a’ Ghàidhealtachd, bhiodh iad a’ gabhail ‘rathad’ air. B’ e an Làirig Dhrù, mar eisimpleir, an ‘rathad’ eadar Rat Mhurchais ann an Srath Spè agus Màrr. ’S e rathad-dròbhaidh a bh’ ann, a bharrachd air a bhith na phrìomh rathad coiseachd tron Mhonadh Ruadh. Eadhon an-diugh, cha chleachdadh tu am facal road ann am Beurla co-cheangailte ris an Làirig Dhrù. Walking track no walkers’ route ’s dòcha. Ach chan e road.

Carson a tha mi a’ beachdachadh air road agus rathad? Uill, bha mi a’ leughadh mu dheidhinn turas a rinn an Caiptean Edmund Burt air a’ Ghàidhealtachd anns an ochdamh linn deug. Bha Burt na mhaor don t-Seanalair Wade a thog mòran rathaidean air a’ Ghàidhealtachd. Rathaidean ceart. Agus sgrìobh Burt rudan inntinneach mun Ghàidhealtachd.

Dh’fhalbh e air chuairt le eich – fear-paca agus fear a bha e fhèin a’ marcachd. ’S iomadh rud a bha a’ cur dragh air mu a thuras. Cha robh mòran àiteachan far am faigheadh e biadh. Bha aige ri a dhol tro bhoglaichean, agus bha na h-eich Shasannach aige ro throm. Chaidh iad an sàs gu domhainn anns na boglaichean. Cha robh cùisean cho dona, ge-tà, do na gearrain Ghàidhealach. Agus bha e duilich do Bhurt a rathad fhèin – agus sin agaibh am facal a-rithist – a dhèanamh tro na boglaichean anns na bòtannan mòr’ aige.

Ach an rud a bu mhotha a chuir dragh air – b’ e sin gun robh a luchd-iùil a’ gabhail road air na frith-rathaidean air an robh iad a’ coiseachd. Bha iad ag eadar-theangachadh ‘rathad’ gu road. Agus do dh’Edmund Burt, chan e roads a bh’ annta! Dh’fheumte feitheamh ris an t-Seanalair Wade gus am biodh a leithid ann air a’ Ghàidhealtachd!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: MacBheathain: MacBain; Làirig Dhrù: Lairig Ghru; Rat Mhurchais: Rothiemurchus; Srath Spè: Strathspey; rathaidean ceart: proper roads.

Abairtean na Litreach: gun tàinig am facal bhon Bheurla Mheadhanaich: that the word came from Middle English; ’s dòcha gur e as coireach gun tugadh a-steach facal-iasaid bhon Bheurla: perhaps the reason that a loanword was taken from English; bidh sinn ga chleachdadh ann an dòigh eadar-dhealaichte:we use it in a different way; anns an t-seann aimsir: in olden times; nam biodh iad, can, air ceum-coiseachd eadar dà bhaile bheag: if they were, say, on a walking track between two small settlements; ’s e rathad-dròbhaidh a bh’ ann: it was a droving route; a bharrachd air a bhith na phrìomh rathad coiseachd tron Mhonadh Ruadh: in addition to being a main walking route through the Cairngorms; bha Burt na mhaor don t-Seanalair Wade: Burt was an agent for General Wade; dh’fhalbh e air chuairt le eich – fear-paca agus fear a bha e fhèin a’ marcachd:he went on a journey with horses – a packhorse and one he was riding himself; ’s iomadh rud a bha a’ cur dragh air mu a thuras:many things annoyed him about his journey; far am faigheadh e biadh: where he could get food; bha na h-eich Shasannach aige ro throm:his English horses were too heavy; chaidh iad an sàs anns na boglaichean: they got stuck in the bogs; na gearrain Ghàidhealach:the Highland ponies [of his companions]; bha e duilich do Bhurt a rathad fhèin a dhèanamh tro na boglaichean anns na bòtannan mòr’ aige:it was difficult for Burt to make his way through the bogs in his big boots; an rud a bu mhotha a chuir dragh air:the thing that most annoyed him; gun robh a luchd-iùil a’ gabhail road air na frith-rathaidean: that his guides were calling the hill tracks ‘road’; dh’fheumte feitheamh ris an t-Seanalair Wade gus am biodh a leithid ann air a’ Ghàidhealtachd: one would have to wait for General Wade until such things existed in the Highlands.

Puing-chànain na Litreach: mus deach an leasachadh ann an Garbh-chrìochan na h-Alba: before they were developed in the wild lands/Highlands of Scotland. Before the ‘retreat’ of Gaelic into the Highlands, that mountainous part of the country was known in Gaelic as Na Garbh-chrìochan ‘the rough lands’. The phrase is generally used today to refer to the area around Moidart and Knoydart in the West Highlands.

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: Chaidh e às an rathad: He perished.

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri An Litir Bheag 542

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