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552: Iain Friseal

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

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Gaelic Gàidhlig

Tha genus de lusan ann an Ameireagaidh a Tuath ris an canar Frasera – mar eisimpleir Frasera speciosa. Tha iad càirdeach do na ‘gentians’ againne no lusan a’ chrùbain ann an Gàidhlig. Chaidh an genus ainmeachadh airson fear Fraser no Friseal – a bha am measg an luchd-cruinneachaidh lusan a b’ ainmeile ri a linn. Chan e a-mhàin gun robh e Albannach a tha inntinneach dhuinn, ach gun robh Gàidhlig aige.

Rugadh Iain Friseal ann an seachd ceud deug is leth-cheud (1750) ann an Tom na Croise ann am Bràigh na h-Àirde faisg air Inbhir Nis. Bha athair – Dòmhnall Friseal – na thuathanach no croitear. ’S e Gàidhlig a bh’ aca a-staigh, ged a tha dùil gun robh a’ Bheurla Shasannach is Albais aig Iain cuideachd.

Nuair a bha e fichead bliadhna a dh’aois no mar sin, ghluais e a Lunnainn agus dh’fhosgail e bùth, a’ reic clò. Bha e a’ fulang aig amannan leis a’ chaitheamh agus, a rèir choltais, ’s ann airson leigheas fhaighinn don ghalar sin a fhuair e turas a dh’Alba Nuadh ann an seachd ceud deug, ochdad ’s a dhà (1782). Bha e pòsta le dithis ghillean òga aig an àm. Thagh e Alba Nuadh oir bha e fhèin is an t-Admaral Iain Caimbeul mòr aig a chèile – agus fhuair an Caimbeulach dreuchd mar Riaghladair Alba Nuaidh.

’S ann nuair a bha e thall an sin a thòisich Friseal air lusan a chruinneachadh. Chuir e a dhreuchd mar cheannaiche clò an dàrna taobh. Agus cha do thill e thuice airson a’ chòrr de a bheatha.

An ceann greis bha e sna Carolinas agus Georgia. Fhuair e eòlas air fear Frangach, André Michaux, a bha a’ cruinneachadh lusan airson Riaghaltas na Frainge, agus rinn iad obair còmhla. Agus bha e ann an conaltradh le Albannach eile, Uilleam Forsyth, a bha na phrìomh ghàirnealair don Rìgh ann an Lunnainn.

Chuir Friseal seachad ùine ann an “Dùthaich nan Innseanach” mar a ghabh e fhèin oirre. Bha na Cherokee ris an do thachair e laghach is sìtheil, agus lìon e bogsaichean le lusan. Agus thachair e ri fear Tòmas Bhaltair a bha a’ cur crìoch air leabhar mòr mu lusan Charolina. Tha e coltach gun do dh’aontaich Friseal an leabhar a chur an clò nuair a thilleadh e a Shasainn. Ach chaochail Bhaltair goirid mus do thòisich Friseal air a shlighe dhachaigh ann an seachd ceud deug, ochdad ’s a h-ochd (1788).

Nuair a thill Friseal a Bhreatainn, thug e leis trithead mìle sampall de lus (a bha marbh) agus grunn bhogsaichean de lusan beò. Bha e gun sgillinn ruadh, ge-tà, agus reic e mòran de na lusan. Ach tha e coltach nach robh sin a rèir an aonta a bh’ aige le feadhainn a chur airgead don phròiseact aige. Ghabh cuid dhiubh air an t-sròin e. Nam measg bha fear de na lus-eòlaichean as ainmeile anns an t-saoghal – Sir Iòsaph Banks.

Co-dhiù, fhuair am Frisealach airgead gu leòr airson am Flora Caroliniana aig Bhaltair fhoillseachadh.

Bha ionad-àraich lusan aige ann an Lunnainn a bha a’ còmhdachadh dusan acaire. Bha e a’ reic lusan Ameireaganach, a bha gu mòr anns an fhasan. Ach bha ceangal aig Friseal cuideachd don Ruis agus, a rèir cuid, don Bhan-ìmpire as ainmeile ann an eachdraidh na dùthcha sin. Innsidh mi tuilleadh anns an ath Litir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: Tom na Croise: Tomnacross; Iain Friseal: John Fraser; riaghladair: governor; Tòmas Bhaltair: Thomas Walter; ionad-àraich lusan: plant nursery; spaideil: smart; ban-ìmpire: empress.

Abairtean na Litreach: luchd-cruinneachaidh lusan: plant collectors; chan e a-mhàin gun robh e Albannach a tha inntinneach dhuinn: it’s not only that he was Scottish that is interesting to us; ’s e Gàidhlig a bh’ aca a-staigh: it was Gaelic that was spoken in the home; tha dùil gun robh a’ Bheurla Shasannach is Albais aige cuideachd: it is thought that he also spoke English and Scots; dh’fhosgail e bùth, a’ reic clò: he opened a shop, selling cloth; a’ fulang aig amannan leis a’ chaitheamh: sometimes suffering from tuberculosis; ’s ann airson leigheas fhaighinn don ghalar sin a fhuair e turas a dh’Alba Nuadh: it was for getting a cure for that disease that he undertook a journey to Nova Scotia; pòsta le dithis ghillean òga: married with two young boys; bha e fhèin is an t-Admaral Iain Caimbeul mòr aig a chèile: he and Admiral John Campbell were fond of each other; chuir e a dhreuchd mar cheannaiche clò an dàrna taobh: he gave up his career as a draper; cha do thill e thuice airson a’ chòrr de a bheatha: he didn’t return to it [fem] for the rest of his life; prìomh ghàirnealair: chief gardener; “Dùthaich nan Innseanach” mar a ghabh e fhèin oirre: “Indian Country” as he himself called it; laghach is sìtheil: pleasant and peaceful; an leabhar a chur an clò nuair a thilleadh e a Shasainn: to print the book when he returned to England; nach robh sin a rèir an aonta: that wasn’t in accordance with the agreement; ghabh cuid dhiubh air an t-sròin e: some of them took it badly (on the nose); anns an fhasan: in fashion; as ainmeile: most famous.

Puing-chànain na Litreach:: Bràigh na h-Àirde: Kiltarlity Parish. I’d like to make a plea for you to be careful to use proper Gaelic geographical terms, and not fall into the trap of translating from English, without checking reference sources. Here is a good example of the potential pitfalls. The village of Kiltarlity (near Beauly) derives the English form of its name from the Gaelic Cill Targhlain (‘Talorcan’s church’). Thus one might be tempted to translate ‘Kiltarlity Parish’ as Sgìre Cill Targhlain. However the Gaelic for the parish is quite different from the name of the village. It is Bràigh na h-Àirde, meaning the upper part of the Aird, a local area name (still referred to in Gaelic as An Àird and in English as The Aird ).

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: fichead bliadhna a dh’aois no mar sin: twenty years of age or about that.

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri An Litir Bheag 248

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