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293: Arm nan Seumasach agus Dudley Bradstreet

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

Gaelic Gàidhlig

Cò chuir arm nan Seumasach air ais dhachaigh anns an Dùbhlachd seachd ceud deug, ceathrad ’s a còig (1745) nuair a bha e ann an Derby? Uill, tha fhios gum bi diofar bheachdan air sin. Ach dh’fhaodamaid argamaid a dhèanamh gur e Èireannach – aon duine – a sheas ann an rathad a’ Phrionnsa Theàrlaich is a thug air tionndadh air ais gu tuath. B’ esan Dudley Bradstreet agus ’s e fear-brathaidh a bh’ ann. Bha e ag obair do na Hanoibhèirianaich. Thug esan comhairle do bhuidheann stiùiridh nan Seumasach nach b’ urrainn dhaibh a’ chùis a dhèanamh air feachdan mòra an Rìgh a bha a’ feitheamh riutha. Ach ’s e breug a bh’ aige.

Rugadh is thogadh Bradstreet ann an Èirinn. ’S e Pròstanach a bh’ ann – fear dhen fheadhainn aig an robh buinteanas do Shasainn o shean. Ged a dh’fheuch e ri obair onarach a dhèanamh ann an Èirinn agus Sasainn airson greis, ’s e foill a b’ fheàrr leis. Agus bha e fìor mhath air.

Bha e ann an Lunnainn nuair a chualas gu robh arm a’ Phrionnsa a’ briseadh a-mach à Alba is a’ dèanamh air Sasainn. Bha eagal air muinntir Lunnainn ro na Seumasaich agus bha am prìomh bhaile air bhoil. Bha daoine a’ tarraing an cuid airgid bhon bhanca, bha bùthan a’ dùnadh agus bhathar ag aithris gu robh an Rìgh a’ dèanamh deiseil airson teicheadh.

’S ann aig an àm ud a chaidh Dudley Bradstreet a bhruidhinn ri Rùnaire Diùc a’ Chaisteil Nuaidh – am fear a bha an urra ri tèarainteachd na rìoghachd. Thabhainn e obair a dhèanamh don riaghaltas mar fhear-brathaidh. An toiseach, chaidh iarraidh air faighinn a-mach dè an seasamh a bh’ aig an luchd-obrach Èireannach a bha a’ fuireach ann an Lunnainn. An robh iad airson no an aghaidh an riaghaltais?

An uair sin ghluais e am measg feadhainn a bha taiceil do na Seumasaich, agus fhuair e a-mach mu phlana airson Tùr Lunnainn a ghabhail thairis. An dèidh sin, chaidh a chur don phrìosan gus gum faigheadh e a-mach bho phrìosanaich eile mu phlana sam bith airson na Seumasaich a chuideachadh.

Nuair a ràinig am Prionnsa Teàrlach Manchester, chuir Bradstreet beachd-smuain ùr mu choinneimh Diùc a’ Chaisteil Nuaidh. Bha e airson a dhol am measg nan saighdearan Seumasach agus am brosnachadh gus ar-a-mach a dhèanamh an aghaidh an ceannardan. Thug an Diùc cead dha rudeigin a dhèanamh airson maill a chur air an arm, agus thug e ceud not dha.

Cheannaich Bradstreet deise spaideil de sheòrsa a bhiodh aig fear beartach. Rinn e tiomnadh, eagal ’s nach tilleadh e, agus chuir e ainm ùr air fhèin – “Oliver Williams”. Dh’fhàg e Lunnainn ann an coidse air an oidhche air an dàrna là dhen Dùbhlachd. Nuair a ràinig e Lichfield, sia mìle deug bho Derby, thachair e ri Diùc Richmond. Dh’innis an Diùc dha gu robh dùil air Diùc Chumberland an ceann ùine gun a bhith fada.

Stad Bradstreet ann an Lichfield, a’ feitheamh ri Cumberland. Nuair a choinnich iad, mhol Bradstreet gun sgriosadh an Diùc an rathad eadar Derby is Northampton gus an gabhadh na Seumasaich rathad eile gu deas. Bhiodh saighdearan an riaghaltais a’ feitheamh riutha air an rathad sin. Dh’èist Cumberland ris is an uair sin dh’iarr e air Bradstreet dèanamh air arm nan Seumasach airson dàil dusan uair a thìde a chur air. Aig ceithir uairean feasgar, dh’fhalbh Bradstreet air muin eich.

Mus do ràinig e Derby thachair e ri saighdearan Seumasach agus thug e tastan do gach duine aca. Carson? Uill, innsidh mi sin dhuibh – agus na thachair dha ann an Derby – anns an ath Litir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: an Dùbhlachd: December; fear-brathaidh: spy; breug: lie; Pròstanach: Protestant; beachd-smuain: idea; deise: suit.

Abairtean na Litreach: cò chuir arm nan Seumasach air ais dhachaigh?: who sent the Jacobite army back home?; tha fhios gum bi diofar bheachdan air sin: there will certainly be a variety of opinions about that; dh’fhaodamaid argamaid a dhèanamh: we could argue; is a thug air tionndadh air ais gu tuath: and forced him to turn back north; nach b’ urrainn dhaibh a’ chùis a dhèanamh air X: that they couldn’t defeat X; aig an robh buinteanas do Shasainn: who had connections to England; ’s e foill a b’ fheàrr leis: it was fraud he preferred; bha e fìor mhath air: he was very good at it (some might prefer bha e fìor mhath oirre, as foill is feminine); bha eagal air muinntir Lunnainn ro X: the people of London feared X; bha am prìomh bhaile air bhoil: the capital was in a frenzy; a’ dèanamh deiseil airson teicheadh: preparing to flee; Rùnaire Diùc a’ Chaisteil Nuaidh: The Secretary to the Duke of Newcastle; an robh iad airson no an aghaidh an riaghaltais?: were they for or against the government?; airson Tùr Lunnainn a ghabhail thairis: to take over the Tower of London; gus gum faigheadh e a-mach bho phrìosanaich eile: so that he would find out from other prisoners; am brosnachadh gus ar-a-mach a dhèanamh:to encourage them to start a rebellion; airson maill a chur air an arm: to delay the army; rinn e tiomnadh, eagal ’s nach tilleadh e:he made a will in case he didn’t return; an ceann ùine gun a bhith fada: shortly; gun sgriosadh X an rathad:that X would destroy the road; dàil dusan uair a thìde a chur air: delay it [the army] for twelve hours; air muin eich: on horseback; thug e tastan do gach duine aca: he gave each of them a shilling.

Puing-chànain na Litreach: Do you know which of the simple prepositions cause a following noun (where no article is present) to be lenited, presuming of course that it starts with a lenitable consonant? Here are the examples in the Litir: o (o shean), bho (bho phrìosanaich eile), mu (mu phlana sam bith), de (de sheòrsa). But the following also cause lenition: a (a Ghlaschu –“to Glasgow”), fo (fo bhòrd), do (do dhaoine eile), ro (ro chàch), tro (tro mheadhan na Gàidhlig).Look, however, at the first sentence of the final paragraph of the Litir. Beware of gach– it cannot be aspirated so don’t be tempted to write or say do ghach duine aca – it is simply do gach duine aca. Other examples would be tro gach duilgheadas, coimhead fo gach baga, bha an t-eagal orm ro gach luchag.

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: am fear a bha an urra ri tèarainteachd na rìoghachd: the man who was in charge of the kingdom’s security. In Litir 137 we looked at an urra ri meaning “dependent on” but here it has an alternative meaning of “in charge of”. It takes the dative.

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