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495: Litir an Abstoil Phòil

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

Gaelic Gàidhlig

Na meallar sibh; cha dèanar fanaid air Dia: oir ge b’ e nì a shìol-chuireas duine an nì ceudna buainidh e.” Tha mi cinnteach gum bi sibh eòlach air an earrainn sin, eadhon mura h-eil sibh mion-eòlach air a’ Bhìoball. Ge b’ e nì a shìol-chuireas duine an nì ceudna buainidh e . No ann am Beurla, “whatsoever a man soweth, that he shall also reap.”

Tha e a’ nochdadh ann an Litir an Abstoil Phòil chum nan Galatianach, Caibideil a Sia, Earrann a Seachd. An t-seachdain sa chaidh, bha sinn a’ toirt sùil air na Galatianaich agus air an dùthaich aca, Galatia. ’S e Ceiltich a bh’ annta. B’ e Galatia rìoghachd Cheilteach ann an Asia Minor – far a bheil an Tuirc an-diugh.

Dh’fhalbh na Galatianaich à fianais còrr is mìle bliadhna air ais. Ach nuair a bha Pòl a’ gluasad nam measg, agus a’ searmonachadh dhaibh, bha cànan Ceilteach aca fhathast. Chan eil sin a’ ciallachadh nach robh cànanan eile gam bruidhinn ann an Galatia a bharrachd. Tha deagh choltas ann gun robh Phrigianais ga bruidhinn ann, ’s gun robh na Ceiltich a’ riaghladh nam Phrigianach.

Tha cuid ann am prìomh bhaile na Tuirc, Ankara, dhen bheachd gur iad na Galatianaich a chuir an t-ainm air a’ bhaile, ged a tha feadhainn eile ag ràdh gu bheil an t-ainm nas sine na sin. Mas e na Galatianaich a bu choireach, seo stòiridh mu dheidhinn: bha batail eadar cabhlach nan Galatianach agus cabhlach nan Èiphiteach. Rinn na Galatianaich a’ chùis. Thug iad dhachaigh na h-acraichean bho na longan Èiphiteach agus chuir iad nan teampaill iad. Ann an Laideann, ’s e ancora a chanar ri acair. ’S dòcha gun robh e car coltach ann an Galatianais – oir thàinig am facal againne (acair) bhon t-seann Lochlannais.

Uill, chan eil fhios agam mun stòiridh sin. Ach tha aithrisean ann mu na Galatianaich is cuin a nochd iad an toiseach ann an Asia Minor. Ghluais iad ann anns na seachdadan dhen treas linn ro Chrìosd – sin na 270s BC. Bha rìgh ann am Bithynia, faisg air far a bheil Istanbul an-diugh. ’S e Nicomedes an t-ainm a bh’ air. Tha mi cinnteach gur e seann Ghreugais a bh’ aige mar chànan.

Bha Nicomedes an sàs ann an strì le a bhràthair airson ceannas. Thug e cuireadh do na Ceiltich thighinn don dùthaich aige, thar a’ Bhosphorus, airson taic a thoirt dha. Chaidh fichead mìle duine ann – boireannaich is clann, a bharrachd air saighdearan. Aig a’ cheann thall, fhuair iad fearann gu sear air Bithynia ann am meadhan Asia Minor. Bhiodh an àrd-chùirt aca a’ tighinn cruinn còmhla faisg air Ankara. Tha e coltach gun robh creideamh draoidheil aca aig an àm ud. Bha doireachan darach naomh dhaibh.

Bha sin air atharrachadh mun àm a sgrìobh Pòl a litir thuca. Tha e coltach bhon litir aige gun robh cuid ann an Galatia a’ cumail ri nòsan Iùdhach, seach a bhith a’ leantainn na slighe Crìosdail a mhol Pòl dhaibh. Tha Pòl gu sònraichte a’ dèanamh iomradh air an timcheall-ghearradh a tha a’ dol nam measg.

Cuiridh mi crìoch air an Litir agamsa le earrann eile bhon litir a chuir Pòl do na Galatianaich: “Oir an tì a chuireas da fheòil fhèin, buainidh e on fheòil truaillidheachd; ach an tì a chuireas don Spiorad, buainidh e on Spiorad a’ bheatha shuthainn.” Beannachd leibh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: Caibideil: Chapter; Earrann: Verse; rìoghachd: kingdom, state; cabhlach: fleet, navy; seann Ghreugais: ancient Greek.

Abairtean na Litreach: eadhon mura h-eil sibh mion-eòlach air a’ Bhìoball: even if you don’t have an intimate knowledge of the Bible ; Litir an Abstoil Phòil chum nan Galatianach: The Letter of the Apostle Paul to the Galatians; ’s e Ceiltich a bh’ annta: they were Celts; dh’fhalbh na X à fianais: the X disappeared; a’ searmonachadh dhaibh: preaching to them; tha deagh choltas ann gun robh Phrigianais ga bruidhinn ann: it certainly appears that Phrygian was spoken there; mas e na X a bu choireach: if the X are responsible; thug iad dhachaigh na h-acraichean bho na longan Èiphiteach: they took home the anchors from the Egyptian ships; chuir iad nan teampaill iad: they put them in their temples; ann an Laideann, ’s e ancora a chanar ri acair: in Latin an anchor is called ancora; bhon t-seann Lochlannais: from Old Norse; an sàs ann an strì le a bhràthair airson ceannas: involved in a struggle with his brother for leadership; fhuair iad fearann gu sear air: they got land east of; bhiodh an àrd-chùirt aca a’ tighinn cruinn còmhla: their high court would meet; gun robh creideamh draoidheil aca aig an àm ud: that they had a druidical religion at that time; bha doireachan darach naomh dhaibh: groves of oaks were sacred to them; nòsan Iùdhach: Jewish ways; a’ dèanamh iomradh air an timcheall-ghearradh: makes mention of the circumcision; oir an tì a chuireas da fheòil fhèin, buainidh e on fheòil truaillidheachd: for he that soweth to his flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption; ach an tì a chuireas don Spiorad, buainidh e on Spiorad a’ bheatha shuthainn: but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.

Puing-chànain na Litreach: Na meallar sibh; cha dèanar fanaid air Dia: The –ar ending on a verbal form often tells us it is a future [and therefore also present habitual] passive form. Cha dèanar fanaid air Dia therefore means “God will not be mocked”. Cha mheallar sibh would be “you will not be deceived” but the “na” rather than “cha” in na meallar sibh makes it clear that this is an imperative form [as in “na dèan sin!” - don’t do that]. So we have here an imperative passive form. Na meallar sibh is “be not deceived”.

Seanfhacal na Litreach Ge b’ e nì a shìol-chuireas duine an nì ceudna buainidh e: whatsoever a man soweth, that he shall also reap [The Apostle Paul’s Letter to the Galatians, Chapter VI, Verse 7].

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri An Litir Bheag 191

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