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Letter to Gaelic Learners Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

Ruairidh MacIlleathain A series of letters to support Gaelic learners. This will help learners who already have some knowledge and understanding of Gaelic and are looking to develop their language skills. Sound files, text, vocabulary and language notes are also available. Sreath de litrichean a bheir taic do luchd-ionnsachaidh na Gàidhlig. Bidh iad seo cuideachail do luchd-ionnsachaidh le beagan tuigs air a’ Ghàidhlig agus a tha a’ coimhead airson dòigh air na sgilean cànain aca a leasachadh. Tha faidhle fuaim, teacsa, briathrachas agus puingean cànain rim faighinn cuideachd.

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Seòras Wade (Litir 126)

Bidh fios agaibh gu bheil mòran daoine ann an Alba nach eil uabhasach dèidheil air laoidh nàiseanta Bhreatainn, “God Save the Queen” no “God Save the King” mar a bh’ ann an toiseach. Tha diofar adhbharan ann airson sin ach, nam measg, tha gu robh an t-òran gu math trom air muinntir na h-Alba nuair a thàinig a’ chiad iris dheth a-mach ann an clò anns an Dàmhair, seachd deug, ceathrad ’s a còig (1745).

Seo ceithir loighnichean às aon rann dhen òran:

May he sedition hush

And like a torrent rush

Rebellious Scots to crush,

God Save the King!

Is math nach eil iad a’ seinn sin nuair a bhuainnicheas Breatainn bonn òir aig na geamannan Oilimpigeach!

Ach cò “he” – cò e – anns an òran – am fear a tha a’ dol a dhèanamh sgrios air na reubaltaich Albannach? ’S e a bh’ ann, fear a dh’fhàg dìleab mhòr as a dhèidh air a’ Ghàidhealtachd. Fear le ainm a tha aithnichte don mhòr-chuid fhathast an-diugh – an Seanailear Wade. Ann am Bliadhna a’ Phrionnsa, bha e os cionn an airm ann an Sasainn agus seo mar a nochdas e ann an laoidh nàiseanta Bhreatainn, anns na trì loighnichean ro na ceithir shuas:

God grant that Marshal Wade

May by Thy mighty aid

Victory bring….

Rugadh Seòras Wade ann an Eirinn. Thathar ag ràdh gum b’ esan a’ chiad Eireannach, am measg mhìltean, a thog rathaidean ann an Alba thairis air an dà cheud gu leth bliadhna a dh’fhalbh. Cha b’ e einsinìr a bh’ ann, ge-tà, ach saighdear. Cha robh e fiù ’s fichead bliadhna a dh’aois nuair a chaidh e an sàs ann an cogadh an toiseach, ann an arm Bhreatainn, ann am Flànras agus anns an Spàinnt. Ràinig e ìre Mhaidseir-Seanaileir agus bha e an sàs ann a bhith a’ cumail sùil air Seumasaich ann an Sasainn ann an seachd deug is còig-deug (1715) nuair a bha ar-a-mach ann an Alba. Ann an seachd deug, fichead ’s a dhà (1722), chaidh a thaghadh mar bhall pàrlamaid airson Bath.

Ach dà bhliadhna às dèidh sin, dh’iarr an Rìgh, Deòrsa a h-aon, air dhol chun na Gàidhealtachd airson sùil a thoirt air suidheachadh muinntir an àite. Bha Mac Shimidh, ceann-cinnidh nam Frisealach, air innse don riaghaltas gu robh mòran ann a bha gu math mì-thoilichte agus a dh’fhaodadh a bhith na chunnart don rìoghachd. Na aithisg, sgrìobh Wade gu robh faisg air dusan mìle duine air a’ Ghàidhealtachd a bha deiseil airson sabaid as leth mac Rìgh Sheumais a Seachd, Seumas Stiùbhart, athair a’ Phrionnsa Theàrlaich. Cha robh ann an Teàrlach aig an àm sin ach leanabh beag.

Bha Wade mothachail don t-suidheachadh dhoirbh anns a bheil saighdearan ann an dùthaich gharbh far nach eil rathaidean no drochaidean, agus far a bheil eòlas fada nas fheàrr air cumadh na tìre aig an fheadhainn a bhuineas don dùthaich. Bha e cuideachd mothachail don duilgheadas a bh’ aig an arm ann a bhith a’ gluasad saighdearan is armachd is biadh is eile eadar na ceithir gearastanan a chaidh a thogail air a’ Ghàidhealtachd às dèidh an ar-a-mach anns a’ bhliadhna còig-deug. B’ iad sin an fheadhainn aig Cille Chuimein, Loch Laomainn, Gleann Eilg agus aig Ruadhainn, faisg air Cinn a’ Ghiuthsaich.

Ach tha aon rud annasach mu dheidhinn aithisg Wade. Cha do mhol e gum biodh rathaidean air an togail gu maith an airm no gun dèanadh e fhèin càil dhen t-seòrsa. A dh’aindeoin sin, ge-tà, cha b’ fhada gus an robh e air ais air a’ Ghàidhealtachd, a’ dèanamh sin. Bheir sinn sùil air cuid de na rinn e an ath-sheachdain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: reubaltaich: rebels; an Seanailear Seòras Wade: General George Wade; Flànras: Flanders; ar-a-mach: rebellion; Mac Shimidh, ceann-cinnidh nam Frisealach: Lord Lovat, clan chief of the Frasers; leanabh: infant; Cille Chuimein: Fort Augustus; Loch Laomainn: Loch Lomond; Gleann Eilg: Glenelg; Ruadhainn: Ruthven;

Abairtean na Litreach: nach eil uabhasach dèidheil air laoidh nàiseanta Bhreatainn: who are not very fond of the British national anthem; nuair a thàinig a’ chiad iris dheth a-mach ann an clò: when its first edition came out in print; fear a dh’fhàg dìleab mhòr as a dhèidh: a man who left a great legacy behind him; ràinig e ìre Mhaidseir-Seanaileir: he reached the rank of major-general; ann a bhith a’ cumail sùil air Seumasaich ann an Sasainn: in keeping an eye on Jacobites in England; chaidh a thaghadh mar bhall pàrlamaid:he was elected as member of parliament; airson sùil a thoirt air suidheachadh muinntir an àite:to look at the situation of the people of the place; a bha deiseil airson sabaid as leth mac Rìgh Sheumais a Seachd, Seumas Stiùbhart: who were ready to fight for the son of King James VII, James Stuart (ie the Old Pretender); far a bheil eòlas fada nas fheàrr air cumadh na tìre aig an fheadhainn a bhuineas don dùthaich: where those who belong to the country know the lie of the land much better; no gun dèanadh e fhèin càil dhen t-seòrsa: or that he would do anything of the like himself; cha b’ fhada gus an robh e air ais air a’ Ghàidhealtachd: it wasn’t long until he was back in the Highlands.

Puing-ghràmair na Litreach: eadar na ceithir gearastanan a chaidh a thogail air a’ Ghàidhealtachd: between the four forts (garrisons) that were built in the Highlands. The point this week is about spelling. You will perhaps be more familiar with the spelling of gearastan as gearasdan. Indeed, the Gaelic for Fort William is traditionally an Gearasdan (or, if one wishes to be specific, Gearasdan Inbhir Lòchaidh or Gearasdan Loch Abair). However, the modern convention is to change the historic “sd” in initial, internal and final positions in words to “st”, a usage which is supported by Faclair na Pàrlamaid. That is why you will see èisteachd in modern publications and èisdeachd in older ones; similarly, an-dràsta instead of the older an-dràsda. I would recommend to all learners that they employ modern spelling modes. Do you notice two different Gaelic equivalents for George in this week’s Litir? In the northern Gàidhealtachd, Seòras is generally used, with Deòrsa reserved for kings. In Argyll, Deòrsa may be used both for both monarchs and commoners. What would you call Fort George in Gaelic? I’ll give you the answer next week.

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: gu maith an airm: for the good of the army. You will sometimes see and hear maith as an alternative for math , not only in the Gaelic of Donegal, where it is the common form, but also in Scotland.

Download the text of this week's letter as a PDF: Thoir a-nuas Litir mar PDF: Adobe PDF of this letter

PDF documents are especially suited for printing out. Most computers can open PDF files, but if you have problems viewing them you may need to install reader software such as Tha faidhleachan PDF gu sònraichte math airson clò-bhualadh. Tha e furasta gu leòr do chuid de choimpiutairean faidhleachan PDF fhosgladh, ach ma tha trioblaid agad ‘s dòcha gum biodh e feumail bathar-bog mar Adobe Acrobat Reader. fhaighinn.

Podcast

BBC offers this litir as a podcast – visit the programme page for more info and to download or subscribe. Tha am BBC a’ tabhainn seo mar podcast. Tadhail air an duilleag-phrògraim airson barrachd fiosrachaidh no airson podcast fhaighinn

Other Letters Litrichean eile

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Àireamh / Number

Facal / Word