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675: Na Ridirean Teampallach

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

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Gaelic Gàidhlig

Mun àm seo an ceann dà bhliadhna, bidh muinntir na h-Alba a’ comharrachadh cath a dh’atharraich eachdraidh Bhreatainn. ’S e sin Blàr Allt a’ Bhonnaich a thachair anns an Ògmhios trì cheud deug is ceithir-deug (1314). Bidh sibh eòlach air an eachdraidh, tha mi cinnteach, ’s mar a thug armailt nan Albannach buaidh air armailt na bu mhotha aig Rìgh Eideard Shasainn.

Bidh daoine ag argamaid gu sìorraidh air na thug buaidh do dh’armailt na h-Alba. Bho mheadhan an naoidheamh linn deug, ge-tà, dh’èirich smuain car inntinneach. ’S e sin gun robh feachd a bharrachd de ridirean aig na h-Albannaich, a bha gu math sgileil ann an sabaid. B’ iad sin na Ridirean Teampallach.

Chan eil mi ag ràdh gun robh na Ridirean Teampallach dha-rìreabh an làthair aig Allt a’ Bhonnaich. Ach bu mhath leam an stòiridh innse dhuibh…

Bha ceangal mòr ann eadar na Ridirean Teampallach agus na Cogaidhean Creideimh anns an Tìr Naoimh. Bha iad aithnichte do mhòran, agus aodach geal orra, le crois mhòr dhearg. Dh’èirich iad anns an dàrna linn deug mar bhuidheann a bhiodh a’ dìon Chrìosdaidhean a bha a’ dèanamh eilthireachd a Ierusalem. Ghabh iad ainm orra fhèin “Ridirean Bochda Chrìosd’ agus Teampall Sholaimh”. Tha seann Teampall Sholaimh ann an Ierusalem. Tha na bunaitean dheth fon mhosg ainmeil ris an canar Al Aqsa. ’S e an teampall sin a thug ainm do na “Ridirean Teampallach”.

Dh’fhàs na Ridirean Teampallach beartach agus cumhachdach. Cha leigeadh eilthirich a leas tòrr airgid a thoirt leotha air an turas don Tìr Naoimh. Bhiodh iad a’ cur an cuid airgid ann an làmhan nan Ridirean, can anns an Fhraing, agus bheireadh iad litir creideis leotha. Leis an litir, gheibheadh iad airgead ann an Ierusalem bho bhancairean nan Ridirean. Anns an dòigh sin, chuir na Ridirean Teampallach lìonra bancaireachd air dòigh air feadh na Roinn Eòrpa.

Anns an dàrna linn deug, thòisich cùisean air a dhol leis na Muslamaich anns an Tìr Naoimh. Mean air mhean, chaill na Ridirean Teampallach na daingnichean aca anns an Ear-mheadhanach.

Ach bha iad fhathast cumhachdach air taobh an iar na Roinn Eòrpa. Agus bha cuid de cheannardan Eòrpach amharasach mun dheidhinn. Bha iad dhen bheachd gun robh na Ridirean ro chumhachdach ’s gun robh iad a’ bagairt air smachd nan rìghrean.

Bha am Pàp stèidhichte san Fhraing. Bha Rìgh na Frainge, Philip IV, a’ cur ìmpidh air a’ Phàp na Ridirean Teampallach a dhèanamh mì-laghail. Bha e a’ cumail a-mach gun robh iad toibheumach agus iodhalach. Ach bha fiachan mòra aig na Ridirean air an Rìgh. Tha cuid dhen bheachd gun robh Philip a’ faicinn seo mar dhòigh gus cur às do na fiachan aige.

Seachd bliadhna ro Bhlàr Allt a’ Bhonnaich, anns an Dàmhair, trì cheud deug ’s a seachd (1307), dh’òrdaich an Rìgh mòran cheannardan Teampallach anns an Fhraing a chur an grèim. Mìos an dèidh sin, chuir am Pàp teachdaireachd a-mach don a h-uile rìgh Crìosdaidh anns an Roinn Eòrpa na Ridirean Teampallach agus an cuid ionmhais a chur an grèim.

Ach ciamar a bha Alba a’ faighinn a-steach don ghnothach? Bheir sinn sùil air sin anns an ath Litir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: Rìgh Eideard Shasainn: King Edward of England; feachd: force, host; Ridirean Teampallach: Knights Templar; teampall: temple; Solamh: Solomon.

Abairtean na Litreach: mun àm seo an ceann dà bhliadhna: about this time two years hence; a’ comharrachadh cath a dh’atharraich eachdraidh Bhreatainn:commemorating a battle that changed the history of Britain; mar a thug armailt nan Albannach buaidh air armailt na bu mhotha: how the army of the Scots defeated a bigger army; bidh daoine ag argamaid gu sìorraidh: people will argue for ever; dha-rìreabh an làthair aig Allt a’ Bhonnaich: definitely present at Bannockburn; Cogaidhean Creideimh anns an Tìr Naoimh: Crusades in the Holy Land; a’ dìon Chrìosdaidhean a bha a’ dèanamh eilthireachd a Ierusalem: protecting Christians who were making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; tha na bunaitean dheth fon mhosg ainmeil: its foundations are under the famous mosque; cha leigeadh eilthirich a leas tòrr airgid a thoirt leotha:pilgrims wouldn’t need to take a lot of money with them; bheireadh iad litir creideis leotha:they would take a letter of credit with them; chuir X lìonra bancaireachd air dòigh air feadh na Roinn Eòrpa: X established a banking network throughout Europe; thòisich cùisean air a dhol leis na Muslamaich: the Muslims began to prevail; mean air mhean: little by little; na daingnichean aca anns an Ear-mheadhanach: their strongholds in the Middle East; a’ bagairt air smachd nan rìghrean: challenging the power of the kings; a’ cur ìmpidh air a’ Phàp: putting pressure on the Pope; a’ cumail a-mach gun robh iad toibheumach agus iodhalach: maintaining that they were blasphemous and idolatrous; mar dhòigh gus cur às do na fiachan aige: as a means of eliminating his debts; ciamar a bha Alba a’ faighinn a-steach?: how did Scotland get involved in the affair?

Puing-chànain na Litreach: bha fiachan mòra aig na Ridirean air an Rìgh : the King was heavily indebted (financially) to the Knights. Fiachan are idiomatically “on” somebody. Sometimes the word is dropped and the idiom is simply eg bha fichead not aig Màiri air Ealasaid “Elizabeth owed Mary £20” (ie the fiach was “on” Ealasaid). The idiom can be extended to fo fhiachan eg bha Alasdair fo fhiachan mòra aig na bancaichean “Alexander owed the banks a lot of money”. The old (now obsolete) dative plural form is also used in this expression ie fo fhiachaibh but tending to refer to moral, rather than financial, indebtedness eg bha mi fo fhiachaibh dhi “I was indebted to her”, tha e mar fhiachaibh air an riaghladair a chiont aideachadh “it is incumbent upon the governor to admit his guilt”.

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: can anns an Fhraing : say (for example) in France.

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri An Litir Bheag 371

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