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350: Co às a thàinig am facal "Mòd"?

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

Gaelic Gàidhlig

’S e facal inntinneach a th’ ann am mòd, nach e? Seo na thathar ag ràdh anns an fhaclair Ghàidhlig Brìgh nam Facal airson “mòd”: 1. Fèis far am bi co-fharpaisean ann an ceòl, seinn, dràma etc, agus 2. (aosta) cùirt. Tha sin ceart, nach eil? Sin mar a tha am facal an-diugh.

Ach ma thèid sinn air ais mu cheud bliadhna gu faclair Dwelly, tha e gu math eadar-dealaichte. Seo na th’ aig Dwelly fo “mòd”: 1. Court, court of justice, 2. Assembly, meeting, 3. Petty court, 4. Baron baillie court, 5. Court at which presides the agent of landed proprietors, to adjust differences among tenants, and to take cognizance of all abuses of any portion of his employees’ property. An uair sin sìos aig àireamh 6: Annual competition held in Gaelic literature and music etc, under the auspices of An Comunn Gàidhealach. Nach eil sin a’ dearbhadh mar a dh’atharraicheas cànan ann an ceud bliadhna?!

’S ann às an t-Seann Lochlannais a thàinig am facal mòd. Bha mót a’ ciallachadh coinneamh no cùirt – an ìre mhath a’ chiall a bh’ air an fhacal ann an Gàidhlig mus d’ fhuair an Comunn Gàidhealach grèim air aig deireadh an naoidheamh linn deug. Nuair a bha an Comunn a’ taghadh ainm airson na fèise ciùil aca, bha cuid an aghaidh “mòd” leis gur e facal a bh’ ann aig nach robh seann fhreumh Ceilteach. Co-dhiù, ’s e “mòd” a chaidh a thaghadh, agus ’s e Mòd a’ Chomuinn a’ phrìomh chiall air an fhacal an-diugh.

Ach, às dèidh dhomh sin a ràdh, tha e inntinneach mar a nochdas am facal ann an seanfhaclan. Mar eisimpleir: Chan ann a h-uile là a bhios mòd aig Mac an Tòisich. Chan ann a h-uile là a bhios mòd aig Mac an Tòisich. Tha mòd an seo a’ ciallachadh “court”.

’S e a bh’ ann am Mac an Tòisich fear a bha na bhàillidh do Iarla Pheairt. Bha fearann aige ann am Magh Bhàrd ann an Srath Èireann. ’S e duine cruaidh a bh’ ann. Bhiodh e a’ feuchainn ri aon eucoireach a chrochadh gach là a bha e a’ cumail cùirt, airson eagal a chur air eucoirich eile, agus airson e fhèin a dhèanamh ainmeil. Is math nach robh cùirt – no mòd – aige a h-uile là.

Seo an seanfhacal eile a lorg mi le “mòd” ann: Is truimid am màl am mòd. Tha sin a’ ciallachadh, “The rent is all the heavier because of the food-rent.” Is truimid am màl am mòd. B’ e sin ciall eile air “mòd”. Bha e a’ ciallachadh na dh’fheumadh màladair a thoirt don uachdaran aige ann am biadh. Bha sin a bharrachd air na dh’fheumadh e a thoirt don uachdaran ann an airgead. Bha meudachd, no luach, a’ mhòid a rèir meudachd an fhearainn.

Mar eisimpleir, tràth san naoidheamh linn deug, bha aig tuathanach air Oighreachd a’ Bharra Challtainn ri dusan dusan ugh agus dusan cearc a thoirt seachad gach bliadhna mar mhòd. Bha toll ann an dreasair sa chidsin ann an taigh an uachdarain agus, nan robh na h-uighean a bha e a’ faighinn beag gu leòr ’s gun d’ rachadh iad troimhe, cha ghabhadh an t-uachdaran riutha mar phàirt dhen mhòd.

Sin am facal mòd, ma-thà – co-dhiù leth-cheud bliadhna mus do thòisich Mòd a’ Chomuinn, mar a tha sinn eòlach air an-diugh. Nach math, ge-tà, nach eil na seann mhòdan ann am bith tuilleadh – is gu bheil iad air an cuimhneachadh a-mhàin ann an seanfhaclan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: Seann Lochlannais: Old Norse.

Abairtean na Litreach: seo na thathar ag ràdh: here’s what is said; mar a dh’atharraicheas cànan: how a language changes; an ìre mhath a’ chiall a bh’ air an fhacal: pretty much what the word meant; airson na fèise ciùil aca: for their music festival; aig nach robh seann fhreumh Ceilteach:which didn’t have an old Celtic root; ’s e “mòd” a chaidh a thaghadh: it’s “mod” that was chosen; a bha na bhàillidh do Iarla Pheairt: who was a baillie/chamberlain to the Earl of Perth; Magh Bhàrd ann an Srath Èireann: Monyvaird in Strath Earn; ’s e duine cruaidh a bh’ ann: he was a hard man; bhiodh e a’ feuchainn ri aon eucoireach a chrochadh gach là: he would try to hang one criminal every day; airson e fhèin a dhèanamh ainmeil: to make himself famous; is math nach robh mòd aige: it’s as well he didn’t have a court; na dh’fheumadh màladair a thoirt don uachdaran aige: what a rent-payer had to pay his landlord; a rèir meudachd an fhearainn:according to the size of the land[holding]; Oighreachd a’ Bharra Challtainn: Barcaldine Estate; dusan dusan ugh: twelve dozen eggs; bha toll ann an dreasair sa chidsin: there was a hole in a dresser in the kitchen; beag gu leòr ’s gun d’ rachadh iad troimhe: small enough that they would go through; cha ghabhadh an t-uachdaran riutha: the landlord would not accept them; nach eil na seann mhòdan ann am bith tuilleadh: that the old mods no longer exist; gu bheil iad air an cuimhneachadh a-mhàin ann an seanfhaclan: that they are only remembered in proverbs.

Puing-chànain na Litreach: Is truimid am màl am mòd : the rent is all the heavier because of the food-rent. Truimid is the second comparative form of the adjective trom. It is formed by the adding of an –[i]d to the first comparative, truime, “heavier”. I considered the “third comparative” in Litir 167 and will not cover that ground again here. There is no direct grammatical equivalent in English to the second comparative – it is not a superlative, as the superlative is represented by the article as and the first comparative (eg ’s e Dòmhnall as motha). It is generally today found only in slightly archaic forms (such as in proverbs) and always in this format: is truimid e sin (it is the heavier for that); is daoirid e sin(it is the dearer because of that). However, it is still relatively common colloquially in two irregular comparatives – those of math(first comparative feàrr) and dona (first comparative miosa): eg Is fheàirrde e sin (he is the better for that); Cha mhiste tu sin (you’re not the worse for that).

Seanfhacal na Litreach Chan ann a h-uile là a bhios mòd aig Mac an Tòisich : it’s not every day that Mackintosh holds a court.

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri An Litir Bheag 46

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