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616: Ainmean-àite ann an Alba

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

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Gaelic Gàidhlig

An t-seachdain sa chaidh bha mi a’ bruidhinn mu ainmean-àite ann an Alba far a bheil an dreach Gàidhlig agus an dreach Beurla gu tur eadar-dhealaichte bho chèile. Gu sònraichte, bha mi a’ toirt sùil air baile ainmeil ann am Fìobh. Bha e ainmeil a thaobh gnothaichean na h-eaglaise. ’S ann anns a’ bhaile sin a tha an t-oilthigh as sine ann an Alba. Agus tha e cuideachd ainmeil air feadh an t-saoghail airson a bhith na dhachaigh do gholf.

Tha mi a’ ciallachadh St Andrews no, ann an Gàidhlig, Cill Rìmhinn. Thug sinn sùil air Cill Rìmhinn an t-seachdain sa chaidh, ’s mar a dh’èirich e bho Ceann Rìghmonadh, “the end of the king’s muir”, agus mar a chaidh a chlàradh ann am meadhan an ochdamh linn ann an làmh-sgrìobhainn Èireannach, Annala Uladh. An t-seachdain seo, tha mi airson sùil a thoirt air ainm ann am Beurla, St Andrews.

An toiseach, bha “St Andrews” co-cheangailte a-mhàin ris an eaglais. Bha eaglais ann an Cill Rìmhinn coisrigte don Naomh Anndra. Chan eil fios le cinnt cuin a dh’èirich an ceangal eadar Anndra agus an t-àite seo. Chan eil fianais làidir ann airson sin ron aonamh linn deug.

Ach tha seann chunntas ag innse dhuinn gun deach cnàmhan aig an naomh a thoirt ann nuair a bha rìgh Cruithneach ann air an robh Ungus mar ainm. ’S dòcha gu bheil sin a’ ciallachadh Aonghas mac Fhearghais a bha beò ann am meadhan an ochdamh linn. Agus ’s dòcha gun robh an t-àite ainmeil aig an àm sin air sàillibh nan cnàmhan, agus gur e sin as coireach gun deach ainmeachadh ann an Annala Uladh.

A rèir sheann chunntasan , ’s e fear Regulus a thug cuid de chnàmhan Anndra ann à Constantinople. Chuir e eaglais air chois aig Ceann Rìghmonadh le taic bho Rìgh Ungus. Thathar ag aithris gun robh Regulus agus seachdnar chompanach aig Ceann Rìghmonadh nuair a nochd Ungus le arm. Bha e air a bhith a’ sabaid an aghaidh nàimhdean à ceann a deas Bhreatainn. Chunnaic Regulus is a chompanaich solas naomh timcheall an rìgh agus thuit iad air am beòil dhìreach leis gun robh an solas cho soilleir.

Dh’èigh aon duine, a bh’ air a bhith dall bho àm a bhreith, gun robh fradharc aige a-nise agus gum faca e ainglean. Choinnich Regulus ri Ungus aig geata air an robh Matha no Mordurus mar ainm. Thug Ungus an t-àite do Dhia agus don Naomh Anndra. Dh’iarr e gum biodh e aca gu sìorraidh, agus gum biodh an t-àite na mhàthair don a h-uile eaglais ann an rìoghachd nan Albannach.

Tha ainm a’ gheata inntinneach. Thathar a’ smaoineachadh gun tàinig Matha bho sheann chànan nan Cruithneach agus gur e an t-ainm a bh’ air ann an Gàidhlig – Mordurus no “Mòr Doras”. Thathar ag innse dhuinn gun do chruthaich Regulus agus a chompanaich manachainn an sin.

Anns an deicheamh linn chì sinn easbaig Chill Rìmhinn air ainmeachadh mar episcopo Sancti Andree – the bishop of St Andrew – ach dh’fhaodadh sin a bhith a’ ciallachadh dìreach ainm na h-eaglaise fhèin. ’S ann anns an dàrna linn deug a tha sinn a’ faicinn a’ bhaile air ainmeachadh a rèir ainm na h-eaglaise, seach a rèir seann ainm a’ mhonaidh. Agus tha St Andrews air a bhith air chun an latha an-diugh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: Gu sònraichte: especially; Fìobh: Fife; Cill Rìmhinn: St Andrews, Kilrymont; a-mhàin: only; cnàmhan: bones; air sàillibh: because of; fradharc: eyesight; manachainn: monastery.

Abairtean na Litreach: gu tur eadar-dhealaichte bho chèile: completely different from each other; ainmeil a thaobh gnothaichean na h-eaglaise:famous in terms of church matters; air feadh an t-saoghail: throughout the world; an làmh-sgrìobhainn Èireannach, Annala Uladh: the Irish manuscript, The Annals of Ulster; coisrigte don Naomh Anndra: dedicated to St Andrew; chan eil fianais làidir ann airson sin ron aonamh linn deug: there is no strong evidence for that before the eleventh century; bha rìgh Cruithneach ann air an robh Ungus mar ainm: there was a Pictish king called Ungus; beò ann am meadhan an ochdamh linn: alive in the middle of the eighth century; gur e sin as coireach gun deach ainmeachadh: that that is the reason it was named; chuir e eaglais air chois: he established a church; seachdnar chompanach: seven companions; an aghaidh nàimhdean à ceann a deas Bhreatainn: against enemies from southern Britain; solas naomh timcheall an rìgh: a holy light around the king; thuit iad air am beòil dhìreach: they fell flat on their faces; dall bho àm a bhreith:who blind since the time of his birth; gum faca e ainglean: that he saw angels; gum biodh e aca gu sìorraidh: that it would be theirs forever.

Puing-chànain na Litreach: A rèir sheann chunntasan: according to old accounts. In last week’s Puing, I looked at how seann, as an adjective that precedes its noun, behaves according to the gender model eg in the nominative singular, we say an seann taigh (masc) but an t-seann eaglais (fem). It inflects in the dative singular as a noun starting with an “s” would – eg anns an t-seann bhàta, anns an t-seann chathair – and in the genitive singular also eg slige an t-seann bhàta (masc), slige na seann luinge (fem). And here in this week’s Litir we have it behaving like a noun starting with “s” in the indefinite genitive plural (following the compound preposition a rèir) ie it is lenited cf taigh-chearc (a house of hens, with cearc lenited). Many modern speakers might eschew this model and just say a rèir seann chunntasan. Cunntasan is lenited because it is preceded by an adjective.

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: ’S ann anns a’ bhaile sin a tha an t-oilthigh as sine ann an Alba: it’s in that town that the oldest university in Scotland is [situated]; also ’S ann anns an dàrna linn deug a tha sinn a’ faicinn a’ bhaile air ainmeachadh a rèir ainm na h-eaglaise: it’s in the twelfth century that we see the town named according to the name of the church.

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri An Litir Bheag 312

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