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112: Uil’-ìoc

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

Gaelic Gàidhlig

Tha e iongantach cho sean ’s a tha cuid de na h-ainmean a th’ againn ann an Gàidhlig airson lusan. Rinn an sgrìobhadair Ròmanach, Pliny, am fear nas sine, a bha beò anns a’ chiad linn às dèidh Chrìosda, rannsachadh air mòran rudan co-cheangailte ri nàdar. Agus sgrìobh e mu dheidhinn lus, a tha a’ fàs gu h-àrd ann an craobhan, dha robh na draoidhean Ceilteach a’ toirt urram thar chàich.

‘ “Omnia sanantem” appellantes suo vocabulo’, sgrìobh e, a’ ciallachadh, “nan cànan fhèin canaidh iad ‘uil’-ìoc’ ris.” Tha sin a’ ciallachadh an lus a tha a’ slànachadh a h-uile nì. Agus ’s e sin an t-ainm a th’ air ann an Gàidhlig fhathast an-diugh, faisg air dà mhìle bliadhna bho chuir Pliny a shreath leabhraichean air nàdar ri chèile – uil’-ìoc. Tha teans ann gum bi sibh nas eòlaiche air fo ainm Beurla – mistletoe.

Seo na sgrìobh Pliny mu dheidhinn. Bidh na h-ìobairtean agus a’ chuirm deiseil fon chraoibh agus bidh iad a’ toirt leotha dà tharbh geal...; bidh draoidh, ann an aodach geal, a’ dìreadh na craoibhe agus a’ gearradh an uil’-ìoc dheth le sgian òir; bidh e air a ghlacadh ann an siota gheal. An uair sin bidh iad ag ìobradh nan tarbh.

Thuirt Pliny gu robh na seann Cheiltich dhen bheachd gun leanadh deagh fhortan air a sin leis cho naomh ’s a bha an t-uil’-ìoc. Chanadh iad, nan òladh boireannach, aig nach robh leanabh, deoch dheth, gum fàsadh i torrach. Agus bhiodh e ag obair mar leigheas an aghaidh a h-uile puinnsein. Bha na draoidhean gu math dèidheil air, agus ’s e ainm eile Gàidhlig air a shon – draoidh-lus.

Tha treas ainm air cuideachd – sùgh-dharaich. Tha “sùgh” a’ ciallachadh snodhach, neo an lionn a tha am broinn craoibhe, anns a bheil am biadh. Agus bidh sibh eòlach air a’ chraoibh-dharaich, tha mi cinnteach. Do na draoidhean, ’s e craobh naomh a bh’ innte, gu h-àraidh nan robh uil’-ìoc a’ fàs oirre. Tha an t-ainm sùgh-dharaich a’ dèanamh ciall, ma-thà, leis gum bi an t-uil’-ìoc a’ toirt sùgh às a’ chraoibh air a bheil e a’ fàs, airson a chumail fhèin beò. ’S e faoighiche a th’ ann, neo co-dhiù leth-fhaoighiche, air sgàth ’s gum bi e a’ dèanamh beagan bìdh dha fhèin leis a’ chlorofail a th’ anns na duilleagan.

Chan eil an t-uil’-ìoc cho cumanta ann an Alba ’s a tha e ann an Sasainn ach, far an robh e a’ fàs, rinn daoine feum dheth. Sgrìobh Tòmas Pennant ann an seachd ceud deug, seachdad ’s a dhà (1772) gu robh daoine ga chleachdadh airson leigheas a dhèanamh air fiabhrasan is tinneasan eile. Anns an naoidheamh linn deug, bhathar ga chleachdadh fhathast ann am Moireibh, faisg air Eilginn, far an robh e a’ fàs.

Agus aig deireadh an naoidheamh linn deug, dh’innis an Dtr. Donnchadh MacGriogair don Chomann Mheidiceach Chailleannach mu bhoireannach a bha a’ fuireach ann an Inbhir Nis nuair a bha e òg. Dhèanadh i tì leis an uil’-ìoc, agus i a’ dèanamh dheth gu robh i math dhi, leis gu robh i a’ fuiling le frith-bhualadh cridhe. Ach bhiodh a caraidean a’ tarraing aiste, gu h-àraidh leis gu robhar a’ dèanamh ceangal eile eadar an lus agus gnothaichean a’ chridhe. Tuigidh sibh gu bheil mi a’ ciallachadh a’ cheangail a th’ ann eadar mistletoe agus pògan aig àm na bliadhn’-ùire!

’S iomadh rud a chaidh a shlànachadh le pòg agus, fiù ’s nuair a tha ìocshlaint ann airson a h-uile rud ann am bùth a’ cheimigeir, seach gu h-àrd ann an craobhan, ’s dòcha gu bheil an t-ainm uil’-ìoc fhathast gu math freagarrach airson an luis àraidh seo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: nàdar: nature; uil-ìoc: mistletoe (lit. “all-heal”); a’ slànachadh: healing; ìobairt: sacrifice; cuirm:feast; tarbh: bull; a’ dìreadh: climbing, ascending; sgian òir: a golden knife; naomh: sacred; torrach:fertile, fecund; draoidh-lus: mistletoe (lit. “druid’s plant”); sùgh-dharaich: mistletoe (lit. “oak-sap”); snodhach:sap; lionn: liquid; clorofail: chlorophyll; fiabhrasan: fevers; an Comann Meidiceach Cailleannach: the Caledonian Medical Society.

Abairtean na Litreach: a bha beò anns a’ chiad linn às dèidh Chrìosda: who lived in the 1st Century AD; dha robh na draoidhean Ceilteach a’ toirt urram thar chàich: which the Celtic druids honoured above all others; bho chuir Pliny a shreath leabhraichean ri chèile: since Pliny compiled his series of books (volumes); bidh e air a ghlacadh ann an siota gheal: it is caught in a white sheet; bidh iad ag ìobradh nan tarbh: they sacrifice the bulls; bhiodh e ag obair mar leigheas an aghaidh a h-uile puinnsein: it would work as a cure for all poisons; ’s e faoighiche a th’ ann, neo co-dhiù leth-fhaoighiche: it is a parasite or, at least, a semiparasite (“faoighiche” once referred only to humans living at another’s expense but, as happened with “parasite”, the meaning has been widened to take in other forms of life); leis gu robh i a’ fuiling le frith-bhualadh cridhe: because she was suffering from palpitations of the heart; ceangal eile eadar an lus agus gnothaichean a’ chridhe: other links between the plant and affairs of the heart; ’s iomadh rud a chaidh a shlànachadh le pòg: many a thing has been healed by a kiss; fiù ’s nuair a tha ìocshlaint ann airson a h-uile rud ann am bùth a’ cheimigeir: even when there is a medicine for everything in the chemist’s shop.

Puing ghràmair na Litreach: leis gum bi an t-uil’-ìoc a’ toirt sùgh às a’ chraoibh air a bheil e a’ fàs: because the mistletoe takes sap from the tree on which it grows. Are you happy with the difference between the prepositions “à” (or “às”) and “bho”? À/às means “out of” or “from the inside of”, whereas bho (or “o”) means “from” or “from the outside of”. That is why I said às a chraoibh, rather than bhon chraoibh because the sap is coming from within the tree. So, we might say, thàinig e às a’ choille (he came out of the wood) but thill e bho oir na coille nuair a chual’ e mi (he returned from the edge of the wood when he heard me). The concept of belonging to a place is also covered by à/às (ie you come from within the place), as in the frequently-asked, cò às a tha thu? (where are you from?); tha mi à Glaschu (I am from Glasgow). It is usually às in front of a vowel or before gach and à before a noun, but this rule is not universal and there is flexibility to use either (which should be good news to the learner!). Finally, à/às is employed in some important idioms, often conjugated to form a prepositional pronoun. There is one of these in the Litir and I would like you to find it and work out what it means. All will be revealed next week!

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: Bhathar ga chleachdadh fhathast: it was still being used (it was still in use).

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