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An Litir Bheag (The Little Letter) An Litir Bheag

Ruairidh MacIlleathain Sreath de litrichean a bheir taic do luchd-ionnsachaidh na Gàidhlig. Bidh iad seo cuideachail do luchd-ionnsachaidh a tha seachad air ìre-tòiseachaidh agus a tha ag iarraidh barrachd Gàidhlig a leughadh. Tha faidhle fuaim, teacsa agus eadar-theangachadh an cois gach litir. Sna tràth-litrichean, tha puingean cànain is abairtean a’ gabhail àite eadar-theangachadh slàn. A series of letters that offer support to Gaelic learners. These will be helpful to learners who are beyond a beginners’ level and want to read more. Audio, text and translation accompany each letter. In the early letters, language points and phrases are provided instead of a full translation.

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Na Ceiltich (2) (Litir Bheag 667) The Celts (2) (Litir Bheag 667)

Na Ceiltich (2) The Celts (2)

I’m doing a series of Litrichean at the moment on the Celts. I was telling you how Celtic tribes went to Anatolia. That was in the third century BC. They gave the name Galatia to the area they settled.

Many of the Galatians also learned Greek. Shortly after Christ’s time, Saint Paul wrote them a letter about Christianity. The letter was in Greek. It is retained in the Bible. The ninth book in the New Testament is The Letter of the Apostle Paul to the Galatians.

But the Galatians also retained their old language. There was a report about them in the fourth century after Christ. Their language was similar to the one spoken by a tribe called the Treveri. The Treveri were living where Luxembourg is today. Most scholars reckon the Treveri spoke a Celtic language.

The Celts were also where Italy is today. Gradually, from the third century onwards, they came under the control of Rome. Their language disappeared.

They were also where Spain is today. In the third century BC, Carthage started to create an empire there. Many Celts went to fight for Carthage against Rome. But the Romans won. The Celts in Spain gained their freedom. But, gradually, Rome influenced them. Around the time of the life of Christ, the Celts there were entirely under the control of Rome. While the Romans were governing, the language of the Celts disappeared in those countries.

North of Iberia was Gaul. That was a big country called ‘Gaul’ in English and ‘Gallia’ in Latin. That’s the reason that people say ‘Gallic’, meaning ‘French’, even today. The Celts were there a long time ago. In the south, they came under the influence of the Greeks that were based in Massalia – where Marseille is today.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Celts (2) (Litir Bheag 667)

Na Ceiltich (2)

Tha mi a’ dèanamh sreath Litrichean an-dràsta air na Ceiltich. Bha mi ag innse dhuibh mu mar a chaidh treubhan Ceilteach gu Anatoilia. Bha sin anns an treas linn ro Chrìosd. Thug iad an t-ainm Galatia don sgìre far an do rinn iad tuineachadh.

Dh’ionnsaich mòran de na Galatianaich Greugais cuideachd. Goirid an dèidh linn Chrìosda, sgrìobh Naomh Pòl litir thuca mu dheidhinn Crìosdachd. Bha an litir ann an Greugais. Tha i air a gleidheadh anns a’ Bhìoball. ʼS e an naoidheamh leabhar anns an Tiomnadh Nuadh Litir an Abstoil Phòil chum nan Galatianach.

Ach ghlèidh na Galatianaich an seann chànan cuideachd. Bha aithris orra anns a’ cheathramh linn an dèidh Chrìosda. Bha an cànan aca coltach ris an tè aig treubh ris an cante na Treveri. Bha na Treveri a’ fuireach timcheall far a bheil Lugsamburg an-diugh. Tha a’ chuid as motha de sgoilearan dhen bheachd gur e cànan Ceilteach a bha aig na Treveri.

Bha na Ceiltich cuideachd far a bheil an Eadailt an-diugh. Mean air mhean, bhon treas ceud a-mach, thàinig iad fo smachd na Ròimhe. Chaidh an cànan à fianais.

Bha iad cuideachd far a bheil an Spàinnt an-diugh. Anns an treas linn ro Chrìosd, thòisich Carthage air ìmpireachd a chruthachadh an sin. Chaidh Ceiltich gu leòr a shabaid às leth Charthage an aghaidh na Ròimhe. Ach bhuannaich na Ròmanaich. Fhuair na Ceiltich anns an Spàinnt an saorsa. Ach, mean air mhean, thug an Ròimh buaidh orra. Timcheall àm beatha Chrìosda, bha na Ceiltich an sin air fad fo smachd na Ròimhe. Fhad ʼs a bha na Ròmanaich a’ riaghladh, dh’fhalbh cànan nan Ceilteach anns na dùthchannan sin.

Gu tuath air Iberia, bha A’ Ghall. B’ e sin dùthaich mhòr ris an canar ann am Beurla ‘Gaul’ agus ann an Laideann ‘Gallia’. ʼS e sin as coireach gum bi daoine ag ràdh ‘Gallic’, a’ ciallachadh ‘Frangach’, eadhon an-diugh. Bha na Ceiltich an sin o chionn fhada. Anns a’ cheann a deas, thàinig iad fo bhuaidh nan Greugach a bha stèidhichte ann am Massalia – far a bheil Marseille an-diugh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PDF

Download the text of this week's letter as a PDF: Thoir a-nuas Litir mar PDF: Adobe PDF of this letter

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh 971

Podcast

BBC offers this litir as a podcast – visit the programme page for more info and to download or subscribe. Tha am BBC a’ tabhainn seo mar podcast. Tadhail air an duilleag-phrògraim airson barrachd fiosrachaidh no airson podcast fhaighinn

Other Letters Litrichean eile

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Àireamh / Number

Facal / Word