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CLAG for Learners CLAG for Learners

LearnGaelic follows the Comasan Labhairt ann an Gàidhlig (CLAG) [Gaelic Speaking Abilities] scale for structured learning. If you're unsure of what level you are, this self-assessment tool will help. Tha LearnGaelic a’ leantainn Siostam Comasan Labhairt ann an Gàidhlig (CLAG) [Gaelic Speaking Abilities] airson ionnsachadh structarail. Mura h-eil thu cinnteach dè an ìre aig a bheil thu, feuch an t-inneal aca gus d’ ìre a dhearbhadh.

Introduction to Gaelic RLDs for learners

The Reference Level Descriptions (RLDs) are scales which aim to support adults who are learning Gaelic and their tutors. There are two parts:

They simplify the wide range of spoken fluency into six bands which provide a common frame of reference when describing spoken ability in Gaelic. You will already know how complete beginners differ from very advanced learners but there can be a lot of variety in what is meant by terms like ‘beginner’, ‘intermediate’ or ‘advanced’.

The six bands

By reviewing the grid and the checklist, you will find out which band best describes your spoken ability. These scales cover speaking ability only. They do not describe skills in reading and writing.

There are six bands on a continuum from the beginner level at A1 to the most proficient level of C2. Although these bands are a simplification of the wide variety of language ability, they are useful to help track your progress so far and identify what your next goals might be.

Each level is a band of ability. Within each band there is a breadth of knowledge, covering things like vocabulary, fluency and pronunciation. Therefore, two learners at B1 might not have exactly the same proficiency, although their skills will be similar.

NEXT: About the self-assessment grid

About the self-assessment grid

The self-assessment grid is based on and expands for Gaelic the ‘Self-assessment grid (Table 2)’ in the CEFR. You can read a bit more about the CEFR in the FAQs, About the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, and access the full text here. You can see self-assessment grids for other languages here.

What does it do?

The self-assessment grid is intended to help you get a general idea of your skills when speaking (remember it does not include reading and writing skills). The bands are a simplification; they provide a general overview.

What does it cover?

There are six bands of ability in the grid, grouped under three broader levels: Basic User (A levels), Independent User (B levels), and Proficient User (C levels). Each level builds on the previous one so if you self-assess at C1, the statements in A1 to B2 also apply to you.

A1 is not the lowest possible level. Rather, it is the lowest level at which you can use your language in a simple way, instead of relying on set phrases you have memorised. If you are a beginner, you may be at pre-A1 level when you are using set phrases to communicate.

Similarly, C2 does not describe an 'ideal' native speaker, although some native speakers might be at C2 for certain skills. Rather, C2 is intended to describe the level of ability that is typical for very successful learners.

What the grid does not do

Each learner has their own set of interests and goals, and the grid is not intended to tell you everything you have to aim for or what you have to learn. The grid is not a prescribed ticklist of everything you have to do to be a 'good speaker'. Many learners want to get to a level where they can feel comforatable in conversation and this might be B1 or B2.

If you have further questions, there is more information in the FAQs – the grid section.

How to use the grid

Read over the grid and decide which band best describes how you are able to speak Gaelic. Which one is most appropriate to describe your ability?

It is not necessary for you to be 100% confident that you can do everything that is in a box. Think of them as bands of ability and the band for you is the one that describes your ability better than the other bands. If there is one bit that doesn't seem quite right, that's okay. That band can still be the best one for you.

You can interpret elements like 'topics I'm familiar with' appropriate to your situation, e.g. you might be able to talk confidently about your hobbies but not know a lot of language about nature.

Next: Self-assessment grid

The self-assessment grid

Basic User A1 I can use simple phrases and sentences to describe where I live, my family, people I know, what I like doing, my job, and the weather. I can interact, provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what I'm trying to say. I can answer simple questions on very familiar topics. When it’s my turn in a conversation, I usually say one short sentence (3-4 words) before it goes back to the other person. I can ask the other person to repeat what they’ve said using 'can sin arithist'.
A2 I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, where I live, my work, and likes and dislikes. I can describe a situation or tell a story, as long as I pause after every couple of words to help me plan. I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle short social exchanges, even though I can't usually keep the conversation going myself.
Independent User B1 I can enter unprepared into conversation on topics that are familiar, of personal interest or relevant to everyday life, e.g. family, hobbies, work, and current events. I can link my thoughts into longer sentences to describe experiences, events, and possibilities such as hopes and ambitions. I can briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. I can tell a story about myself or something that happened or relate the plot of a book or film. In conversation I generally contribute as much as the other person. I can indicate that I agree or am following what the other person is saying, using phrases like 'cinnteach', 'seadh', and 'tha f(h)ios agam'.
B2 I can talk about a wide range of subjects and do so in some detail if I am quite familiar with them. I can explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options. I can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with very fluent/proficient speakers quite possible. I can take an active part in discussion in familiar contexts, giving and explaining my views. I can use phrases like 'tha mi a’ tuigsinn' and 'dìreach' to indicate when I am following what other people are saying. When it’s my turn in a conversation, I can give longer responses, up to three sentences at a time.
Proficient User C1 I can give clear, detailed descriptions of complex subjects integrating sub-themes, developing particular points and rounding off with an appropriate conclusion. I can talk fluidly about things that are conceptually difficult even though I may pause sometimes to help me plan. I can express myself fluently and spontaneously although I do still sometimes hesitate when talking about something complex. I can use colloquial and professional styles of language in appropriate contexts. I can use longer, more complex sentences to discuss ideas with nuance and precision. I can relate what I am saying skilfully to what other people are saying. I can lead a conversation if other speakers are speaking less than me.
C2 I can present a clear, smooth-flowing description or argument in a style appropriate to the context and with a structure which helps those listening to notice and remember significant points. I can take part effortlessly in any conversation and have a good familiarity with idioms and colloquialisms. I can express myself fluently even in complex sentences, and convey finer shades of meaning precisely. If I do have a problem I can backtrack and restructure around the difficulty without disrupting the flow of conversation. I rarely need to pause mid-sentence in order to formulate my ideas.

About the self-assessment checklist

The self-assessment checklist is based on and expands for Gaelic the ‘Checklists of Descriptors’ developed by Eaquals. Why not read other languages' checklists?

The self-assessment checklist has a section for each of the six bands. Each section breaks down speaking ability into a series of statements about things you can say or do.

You don't have to think that you could do that task perfectly with perfect grammar, pronunciation, etc. Rather, consider whether you could successfully complete it by communicating effectively.

How to use the checklist

The checklist contains a list of statements and next to each one the option of two boxes to tick:

  • I can do this - Tick this if you can do this
  • My goals - Tick this if it is a current learning goal or could be a short-term goal for you (maybe for your current course or over the next six months).

If neither box applies, continue with the next statement until the end of the section. You don't have to place a tick for every statement. When you have finished a section, have a look over your answers.

Have you ticked 'I can do this' for most of the statements? If yes, continue with the next level.

Where do I start?

Complete the self-assessment checklist.

When do I stop?

When you get to a level where you can't tick mostly 'I can do this', you can stop.

If you can tick 80% of the statements, you have achieved this level.

If you have other questions as you complete the checklist, you can check our FAQs – checklist section.

Next: Self-assessment checklist

Self-assessment checklist: A1

Read each statement and tick the box for what you can already do ('I can do this'). Use the other column ('My Goals') to mark those things that you cannot yet do but which might be your next learning goals (say for your current course/ over the next six months). If neither column applies, move on to the next statement for this level.

Spoken interaction I can do this My goals
I can use greetings like 'madainn mhath', 'mar sin leat/leibh', and 'tapadh leat/leibh'.
I can ask and answer simple questions, and initiate and respond to simple statements about things that are happening right now, or on very familiar topics.
I can ask and answer simple questions, and initiate and respond to simple statements about things that are happening right now, or on very familiar topics.
I can make myself understood but I am dependent on my speaking partner being prepared to repeat more slowly and to help me to say what I want.
I can ask people questions about where they live, people they know, things they have etc. and answer these kinds of questions, provided my partner speaks slowly and clearly.
I can say what I like and dislike.
Spoken production I can do this My goals
I can give personal information, like my telephone number, nationality, age, family, and hobbies.
I can say where I’m from and describe where I live.
I can say what I have, e.g. 'tha nighean agam'.
I can indicate time by such phrases as 'an-diugh', 'a-nis'.
I know enough numbers to tell the time.
Strategies to help me communicate or understand I can do this My goals
I can very simply ask somebody to repeat what they said, e.g. 'can sin a-rithist'.
Language quality I can do this My goals
I can make myself understood using memorised phrases and single expressions.
I can link groups of words with simple connectors like 'agus', 'ach', and 'airson'.
I can use some simple structures correctly e.g. 'tha mi a' dol', 'tha [rudeigin] agam'.
I can contrast words using 'no'.

If you think this level applies to you, check out our A1 resources. Too easy? Try A2.

Self-assessment checklist: A2

Read each statement and tick the box for what you can already do ('I can do'). Use the other column ('My Goals') to mark those things that you cannot yet do but which might be your next learning goals (say for your current course/ over the next six months). If neither column applies, move on to the next statement for this level.

Spoken interaction I can do this My goals
I can make and respond to invitations.
I can make and accept apologies.
I can discuss with other people in person what to do, where to go, and make arrangements to meet.
I can ask people questions about what they do at work and in free time, and answer such questions addressed to me.
I can participate in conversations, but my speaking partners are likely to do most of the talking.
Spoken production I can do this My goals
I can describe myself, my family and other people and how they are and what they have.
I can give short, basic descriptions of events, using words like 'an uairsin', 'an toiseach', 'nuair'.
I can describe my hobbies and interests in a simple way.
I can say where things are, e.g. 'a-muigh', 'an seo', 'aig', 'air'.
I can make comparisons using words like 'nas fheàrr' and 'nas motha'.
I can indicate time by phrases like 'am-bliadhna', 'an-dè', 'gu tric', 'mar-thà', 'sa chaidh', and days, months and seasons.
I can talk about something that happened in the past.
I can describe a situation or story using short sentences, although I often need to pause to plan what’s coming next in those sentences.
Strategies to help me communicate or understand I can do this My goals
I can ask for attention, e.g. 'gabh mo leisgeul'
I can indicate when I am or am not following what is being said with expressions such as 'tha/chan eil mi a’ tuigsinn', 'tha f(h)ios agam', 'seadh'.
I can get feedback from the other person to make sure I’m using the right words and phrases, e.g. 'a bheil sin ceart?'
Language quality I can do this My goals
I can link ideas with words like 'airson', 'ge-tà', and 'no'.
I can use some simple structures correctly, e.g. 'Is e [profession] a th’ annam', 'Is e latha breàgha a th’ ann', 'Is toigh leam snàmh', 'Tha mi a' dol dhachaigh'.

If you think this level applies to you, check out our A2 resources. Too easy? Try B1.

Self-assessment checklist: B1

Read each statement and tick the box for what you can already do ('I can do'). Use the other column ('My Goals') to mark those things that you cannot yet do but which might be your next learning goals (say for your current course/ over the next six months). If neither column applies, move on to the next statements for this level.

Spoken interaction I can do this My goals
I can start, maintain and close simple face-to-face conversations on topics that are familiar or of personal interest.
I can maintain a conversation or discussion but I sometimes struggle to put across exactly what I want to say.
I can express and respond to feelings such happiness, sadness and interest, e.g. 'tha mi toilichte', 'tha sin inntinneach'.
I can give or seek personal views and opinions in an informal discussion with friends.
I can show when I agree with someone, using expressions such as 'tha thu ceart', 'seadh', 'cinnteach'.
Spoken production I can do this My goals
I can narrate a simple story.
I can give detailed accounts of experiences, describing feelings and reactions.
I can describe things I would like to do in the future or if possible.
I can relate the plot of a book or film and describe my reactions.
I can paraphrase short written passages orally in a simple fashion, using the original text wording and ordering.
I can link ideas and sentences using words like 'a chionn', 'air sgàth', '(a) leithid', 'mar eisimpleir'.
Strategies to help me communicate or understand I can do this My goals
I can repeat back part of what someone has said to confirm that we understand each other.
I can ask someone to clarify or elaborate what they have just said.
When I can’t think of the word I want, I can use a simple word meaning something similar and invite “correction”.
Language quality I can do this My goals
I can keep a conversation going comprehensibly, without relying on the person I’m talking to to take the lead.
I can convey simple information of immediate relevance, getting across which point I feel is most important.
I have a sufficient vocabulary to express myself with some circumlocutions on most topics pertinent to my everyday life such as family, hobbies and interests, work, travel, and current events.
I can express myself reasonably accurately in familiar, predictable situations.
I can sometimes use longer sentences that have sub-sections which begin with things like 'gu bheil', 'nach eil', 'nuair a tha', 'an rud a tha'.

If you think this level applies to you, check out our B1 resources. Too easy? Try B2.

Self-assessment checklist: B2

Read each statement and tick the box for what you can already do ('I can do'). Use the other column ('My Goals') to mark those things that you cannot yet do but which might be your next learning goals (say for your current course/ over the next six months). If neither column applies, move on to the next statements for this level.

Spoken interaction I can do this My goals
I can discuss topics within my fields of interest in some detail for a sustained length of time, contributing around 3 sentences when it’s my turn to speak in the conversation.
I can convey degrees of emotion and highlight the personal significance of events and experiences.
I can engage in extended conversation in a clearly participatory fashion on most general topics, taking the lead in the conversation when necessary so the other person doesn’t have to do all the talking.
I can account for and sustain my opinions in discussion by providing relevant explanations, arguments and comments.
I can help a discussion along on familiar ground confirming comprehension, inviting others in, etc
Spoken production I can do this My goals
I can give clear, detailed descriptions on a wide range of subjects related to things I’m interested in.
I can understand and summarise orally short extracts from the news or documentaries containing opinions, argument and discussion.
I can construct a chain of reasoned argument, linking my ideas logically with words such as 'ged a', 'an àite', 'seach'.
I can explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
I can speculate about causes, consequences, hypothetical situations, using phrases like 'mur(a)', 'ma', and 'a chionn 's'.
Strategies to help me communicate or understand I can do this My goals
I can use phrases like chanainn and 's dòcha to gain time while formulating what to say.
I can make a note of “favourite mistakes” and consciously monitor speech for them.
Language quality I can do this My goals
I can produce stretches of language with a fairly even tempo; although I may pause or hesitate sometimes as I search for expressions.
I can pass on detailed information reliably.
I have sufficient vocabulary to express myself on things I’m interested in and on most general topics.
I can communicate with reasonable accuracy and can correct mistakes if they have led to misunderstandings.

If you think this level applies to you, check out our B2 resources. Too easy? Try C1.

Self-assessment checklist: C1

Read each statement and tick the box for what you can already do ('I can do'). Use the other column ('My Goals') to mark those things that you cannot yet do but which might be your next learning goals (say for your current course/ over the next six months). If neither column applies, move on to the next statements for this level.

Spoken interaction I can do this My goals
I can keep up with an animated conversation between very proficient speakers.
I can use language flexibly and effectively for social purposes, including emotional, allusive and joking usage.
I can express my ideas and opinions clearly and precisely, and can present and respond to complex lines of reasoning convincingly.
I can comfortably lead a conversation.
I can give a clearly developed presentation on a subject in my fields of personal or professional interest, departing when necessary from the prepared text and following up spontaneously points raised by members of the audience.
Spoken production I can do this My goals
I can give clear, detailed descriptions of complex subjects, using a range of adjectives and adverbs to describe these with precision, e.g. 'cuimseach', 'gu tur'.
I can orally summarise long, demanding texts.
I can give an extended description or account of something, integrating themes, developing particular points and concluding appropriately.
I can identify different points in what I’m saying with phrases like 'air an làimh eile', 'a bharrachd air', 'mus tèid mi gu taobh eile na cùis'.
I can use my Gaelic fluently, accurately and effectively on a wide range of general, professional or academic topics.
Strategies to help me communicate or understand I can do this My goals
I can substitute an equivalent term for a word I can’t recall without distracting the listener.
Language quality I can do this My goals
I can express myself fluently and spontaneously, almost effortlessly. Only a conceptually difficult subject can make me hesitate for a long time.
I can produce clear, smoothly-flowing, well-structured speech, showing control over ways of developing what I want to say in order to link both my ideas and my expression of them into coherent speech. I can use phrases like 'air sàillibh', 'ged a', 'gus an', and 'a thaobh' to do this.
I have a good command of a broad vocabulary allowing gaps to be readily overcome with circumlocutions; I rarely have to search obviously for expressions or compromise on saying exactly what I want to.
I can regularly use longer sentences that have sub-sections which begin with things like 'far a bheil', 'ma bhios', and 'nam biodh'.

If you think this level applies to you, check out our C1 resources. Too easy? Try C2.

Self-assessment checklist: C2

Read each statement and tick the box for what you can already do ('I can do'). Use the other column ('My Goals') to mark those things that you cannot yet do but which might be your next learning goals (say for your current course/ over the next six months). If neither column applies, move on to the next statements for this level.

Spoken interaction I can do this My goals
I can take part effortlessly in all conversations and discussions with very proficient speakers.
I can use discourse markers like 'cò aig a tha fios' and 'channain-sa' when I want to indicate it’s the end of my turn, or take the floor.
Spoken production I can do this My goals
I can summarise orally information from different sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation.
I can present ideas and viewpoints in a very flexible manner in order to give emphasis, to differentiate and to eliminate ambiguity. I can use phrases like 'is ann/b’ ann', 'air an làimh eile' and 'a bharrachd air' to do this.
I can comfortably use different styles of language in different settings, e.g. with friends, or at work.
Strategies to help me communicate or understand I can do this My goals
I can backtrack and restructure around a difficulty very smoothly.
Language quality I can do this My goals
I can express myself naturally and effortlessly; I only need to pause occasionally in order to select precisely the right words.
I can convey finer shades of meaning precisely by using a wide range of expressions like gu ìre to qualify statements and pinpoint the extent to which something is the case.
I have a good command of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms with an awareness of implied meaning and meaning by association.
I can use a very broad range of simple and complex prepositions and prepositional pronouns.
I can consistently maintain grammatical control of complex language even when my attention is otherwise engaged.

If you think this level applies to you, check out our C2 resources.

Check out the FAQs for more information.

FAQs

About CLAG

CLAG, or Comasan Labhairt ann an Gàidhlig, was a project researching Gaelic ability in adult learners. It interviewed 150 adult learners and 16 native speakers, and worked with Gaelic tutors to get a detailed understanding of the Gaelic skills people have at different levels of proficiency. It measured various factors including the vocabulary and grammar structures speakers know, people’s ability to communicate in different contexts, and how quickly or slowly people at different levels are able to speak.

This evidence-based description of the Gaelic that learners know and use was then aligned with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). The recorded interviews provided authentic learner language to illustrate language points at a particular CEFR level. The results are these Reference Level Descriptions (RLDs) for Gaelic which are intended to support adults who are learning the language.

The CLAG proficiency scales, self-assessment grid, and self-assessment checklist draw on resources developed by the Council of Europe and Eaquals. The proficiency scales and self-assessment grid build on similar scales in the Common European Framework of Reference (see About the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages). The self-assessment checklist builds on ‘Checklists of Descriptors’ developed by Eaquals.

The project was funded by Bòrd na Gàidhlig and the Scottish Funding Council under the auspices of Soillse, the National Research Network for the Maintenance and Revitalisation of Gaelic Language and Culture. It was led by Professor Roibeard Ó Maolalaigh and Dr Nicola Carty at the University of Glasgow, where the scales were researched and created with Dr Susan Ross. Dr Michelle Macleod from the University of Aberdeen compiled the native speaker section of the corpus, and analysed the relationship between the CLAG proficiency scales and other Scottish accreditation frameworks, including the SCQF. The project assistants involved in transcribing and coding the data were Dr Stuart Dunmore and Ms Catrìona Nic A’ Phì.

Recordings and transcripts of the corpus are available form the Digital Archive of Scottish Gaelic.

The proficiency scales developed for tutors provide more detail about different language skills.

About the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) was created by the Council of Europe as a standard frame of reference for describing language ability. The CEFR provides a common basis for the elaboration of language syllabuses, curriculum guidelines, examinations, textbooks, etc. across Europe.

The Council of Europe's general CEFR is not tied to any specific language and does not itemise the vocabulary and grammar in the language that is being learned. These Reference Level Descriptions (RLDs) for Gaelic produced by CLAG localise the CEFR by providing an evidencebased description of the Gaelic that learners know and use at each CEFR level.

For more information, visit the CEFR’s website.

FAQs - the grid

What if I think I'm between two levels?

As the creators of the CEFR note, language proficiency is a continuum, like the colours of the rainbow. When you look at a rainbow, there is some fuzziness at the boundaries between colours, but the main bands of colour are still clear, so you can distinguish red from orange, orange from yellow, etc. In the grid, you might be on the boundary between A2 and B1, but overall more firmly in A2.

In the checklist, you can answer more specific questions that will help clarify what you can do. The grid is designed to be concise but the checklist provides more detail.

What if I think, 'I can do this but to what extent'?

You will find that in the checklist, you can answer more specific questions in greater detail. This will help guide you further. It's okay to be unsure at this stage. Remember that each level is unlikely to a perfect fit for every individual. Choose the band that suits you better than the others.

What if I think, I can do this on some days but not on others?

Sometimes, we know we can do things but can't do them all the time. This checklist covers your linguistic ability, not things that might interfere sometimes on bad days or at the end of a long day, like fatigue, anxiety or a neuro-atypical condition. If on the 'good days', you can do these things, then that's the accurate measure of your linguistic ability; you still have the skills, it's just that sometimes you don't have access to them.

What if I don't want to aim for all the things mentioned here?

The aim of the self-assessment grid is to be a common reference guide that gives an overall picture. It is not a prescribed list of everything that everyone should try to do. Each learner has their own set of interests and goals, so the grid is not intended to tell you everything you have to aim for or what you have to learn.

Even if you are not trying to progress to another level, the grid can be a useful way to reflect on what you can do at the moment and to clarify how far you've already come.

What if I'm better at reading and writing than speaking?

The self-assessment grid and checklist relate only to speaking skills, not all kinds of knowledge of Gaelic. Therefore, they do not rate your overall knowledge of Gaelic. Think of them as only applying to your proficiency in speaking the language.

What if I don't always speak 'fluently' and 'smoothly'?

Remember that as you progress, you are likely to begin talking about more complex things. This might mean that you pause more often as you try to formulate your ideas about something, just as you do in your native language. Pauses at higher levels don’t necessarily indicate less proficiency, as we all need to pause in every language to get our thoughts out, especially when thinking out loud.

FAQs - the checklist

What does 'most' of the statements mean?

There are a different number of statements in each section so 'most' isn't a fixed number. However, if there's only two to three statements that you haven't ticked, that means you probably have ticked 'most' of them.

What if I think I can do the task better than it is described?

You can consider the description to be a minimum. If there is a limiting condition that doesn't apply to you, you can still tick 'I can do' and continue.

Consider the following example: "I can keep a conversation going comprehensibly, but have to pause to plan."

If you can do this without having to pause to plan, tick 'I can do' anyway and continue with the checklist to the more advanced statements.

What if I can do these things sometimes, but not all the time?

Sometimes, we know we can do things but can't do them all the time. This checklist covers your linguistic ability, not things that might interfere sometimes on bad days or at the end of a long day, like fatigue, anxiety or a neuro-atypical condition. If on the 'good days', you can do these things, then that's the accurate measure of your linguistic ability; you still have the skills, it's just that sometimes you don't have access to them.

What if I can do these things to some extent but it depends on the situation or if I've had time to prepare?

Unless specified in the statement, consider that these are things that you can do spontaneously or at least with minimal preparation (a minute's thought without researching dictionaries or preparing a written text).

What if it asks about something I don’t do, such as interviews or storytelling?

Consider whether there is a similar context that is appropriate to you. You might not tell children bedtime stories but you might often tell friends or colleagues a story about something that happened to you.

Or imagine that you were going to interview someone about their life. Consider whether you are confident that you could do this without a lot of linguistic preparation (researching dictionaries, asking someone else how to form a particular question)?

Remember: the checklist is not asking if you could do that task perfectly with perfect grammar, pronunciation, etc. Rather, consider whether you could successfully complete it by communicating effectively with other people.

I don't think I have any particular goals right now. What should I do?

You don't have to use this column if it is not appropriate for you. However, you might want to consider it as asking if you would like this to be a next step. You can use this exercise to reflect on whether you would like to set some goals or next steps.

Even if you are not trying to progress to a particular level right now, you might find the exercise useful to reflect on what you can do at the moment and to clarify how far you've already come. If you are completing the checklist for a particular course, ask the tutor or course organiser to clarify what information they would like to know about your priorities and goals.