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An Litir Bheag (The Little Letter) An Litir Bheag

Ruairidh MacIlleathain Sreath de litrichean a bheir taic do luchd-ionnsachaidh na Gàidhlig. Bidh iad seo cuideachail do luchd-ionnsachaidh a tha seachad air ìre-tòiseachaidh agus a tha ag iarraidh barrachd Gàidhlig a leughadh. Tha faidhle fuaim, teacsa agus eadar-theangachadh an cois gach litir. Sna tràth-litrichean, tha puingean cànain is abairtean a’ gabhail àite eadar-theangachadh slàn. A series of letters that offer support to Gaelic learners. These will be helpful to learners who are beyond a beginners’ level and want to read more. Audio, text and translation accompany each letter. In the early letters, language points and phrases are provided instead of a full translation.

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The Celts (6) (Litir Bheag 671) Na Ceiltich (6) (Litir Bheag 671)

The Celts (6) Na Ceiltich (6)

I was telling you about the Celtic kingdom – Rheged. Urien was the king at the end of the sixth century. He and other British kings worked together against the Angles. But Urien was killed by another Celt and that weakened the Celtic cause.

Urien’s son, Owain map Urien, was alive only a few years. He was also killed, and by another Celt. Old Welsh manuscripts tell us about a battle between the Britons and the Angles at Catterick. The Angles won. In the sixth century, Rheged disappeared as a Celtic kingdom.

The language didn’t disappear immediately, however. The Welsh talk about the Hen Ogledd – the old north – the area in which the Old Brythonic language was spoken. The language survived until around the twelfth century.

But what happened to the British kingdoms in the south of Scotland? Well, Lothian came under the influence of the Angles in the sixth century. But Strathclyde continued as a British kingdom for a period. The headquarters of the Britons in Strathclyde was in Dumbarton.

At the end of the ninth century, the Vikings laid siege to Dumbarton. After four months the Britons surrendered. The Vikings took hundreds of people to Ireland.

The Gaels and the Picts – who were now united – were influencing Strathclyde around this time. Some of the Britons left for Wales. The last British king of Strathclyde was killed at the Battle of Carham in the Borders in the year 1018. He was fighting for Scotland against the Northumbrian English.

Finally, there were just two places where the P-Celts were strong – Cornwall and Wales. Through the middle ages the people of Cornwall were still very Celtic. Cornwall came under the control of England, but the language and culture continued, and they had strong connections to Brittany.

Then the Tudors came to the English throne. In spite of the fact that their roots were in Wales, they were not well-disposed to the Cornish, as we shall see next week.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Na Ceiltich (6) (Litir Bheag 671)

The Celts (6)

Bha mi ag innse dhuibh mun t-seann rìoghachd Cheiltich – Rheged. B’ e Urien an rìgh aig deireadh an t-siathamh linn. Dh’obraich e fhèin agus rìghrean Breatannach eile còmhla an aghaidh nan Anglach. Ach bha Urien air a mharbhadh le Ceilteach eile agus lagaich sin cùis nan Ceilteach.

Bha mac Urien, Owain map Urien, beò dìreach beagan bhliadhnaichean. Bha esan air a mharbhadh cuideachd, agus le Ceilteach eile. Tha seann làmh-sgrìobhainnean Cuimreach ag innse dhuinn mu bhatail eadar na Breatannaich agus na h-Anglaich aig Catterick. Bhuannaich na h-Anglaich. Anns an t-seachdamh linn, chaidh Rheged à bith mar rìoghachd Cheilteach.

Cha do dh’fhalbh an cànan sa mhionaid, ge-tà. Bidh na Cuimrich a’ bruidhinn mun Hen Ogledd – an seann cheann a tuath – an sgìre anns an robhar a’ bruidhinn na Seann Bhreatannais. Bha an cànan beò gu timcheall an dàrna linn deug.

Ach dè thachair do na rìoghachdan Breatannach ann an ceann a deas na h-Alba? Uill, thàinig Lodainn fo bhuaidh nan Anglach anns an t-siathamh linn. Ach lean Srath Chluaidh mar rìoghachd Bhreatannach airson ùine. Bha prìomh àros nam Breatannach ann an Srath Chluaidh aig Dùn Breatann.

Aig deireadh an naoidheamh linn, chuir na Lochlannaich Dùn Breatann fo shèist. An dèidh ceithir mìosan ghèill na Breatannaich. Thug na Lochlannaich na ceudan dhaoine air falbh a dh’Èirinn.

Bha na Gàidheil agus Cruithnich – a bha a-nise aonaichte – a’ toirt buaidh air Srath Chluaidh mun aon àm. Dh’fhalbh cuid de na Breatannaich don Cuimrigh. Bha an rìgh Breatannach mu dheireadh aig Srath Chluaidh air a mharbhadh aig Blàr Charham anns na Crìochan anns a’ bhliadhna mìle ʼs ochd-deug (1018). Bha e a’ sabaid às leth Alba an aghaidh Sasannaich Northumbria.

Mu dheireadh, bha dìreach dà àite far an robh na P-Ceiltich làidir – a’ Chòrn agus a’ Chuimrigh. Tro na meadhan-aoisean bha muinntir na Cùirn fhathast gu math Ceilteach. Thàinig a’ Chòrn fo smachd Shasainn, ach lean an cànan ʼs an cultar, agus bha ceanglaichean làidir aca leis a’ Bhreatainn Bhig.

An uair sin thàinig na Tudoraich gu rìgh-chathair Shasainn. A dh’aindeoin ʼs gun robh am freumhaichean anns a’ Chuimrigh, cha robh iad bàigheil ris na Còrnaich, mar a chì sinn an-ath-sheachdain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PDF

Download the text of this week's letter as a PDF: Thoir a-nuas Litir mar PDF: Adobe PDF of this letter

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Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh

This letter corresponds to Tha an Litir seo a’ buntainn ri Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh 975

Podcast

BBC offers this litir as a podcast – visit the programme page for more info and to download or subscribe. Tha am BBC a’ tabhainn seo mar podcast. Tadhail air an duilleag-phrògraim airson barrachd fiosrachaidh no airson podcast fhaighinn

Other Letters Litrichean eile

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Àireamh / Number

Facal / Word