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188: Bàs

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

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Gaelic Gàidhlig

Seo agaibh rann bheag. Chan eil e uabhasach tlachdmhor, ’s dòcha, ach co-dhiù, seo i:

Mìle beannachd aig an eug,

’S iomadh fear don rinn e feum,

Thug e bhuam-s’ a’ chailleach bhreun,

’S èibhinn leam gun shiubhail i,

Gun shiubhail i, gun shiubhail i.

’S e am fear a sgrìobh an rann bodach a bha toilichte gun d’ fhuair a bhean bàs. Is duilich sin, gun teagamh, ach feumaidh nach robh iad a’ faighinn air adhart le chèile. ’S ann à Loch Abar a bha e agus, anns an sgìre sin, agus ann an Earra-Ghàidheal, canaidh iad ‘shiubhail’ airson ‘died’, ged a tha am facal a’ ciallachadh ‘travelled’. Gun shiubhail i no gun do shiubhail i – that she died. Seo an rann a-rithist, agus tha mi airson ’s gum mothaich sibh am facal ‘eug’ a tha a’ ciallachadh ‘bàs’:

Mìle beannachd aig an eug,

’S iomadh fear don rinn e feum,

Thug e bhuam-s’ a’ chailleach bhreun,

’S èibhinn leam gun shiubhail i,

Gun shiubhail i, gun shiubhail i.

Tha caochladh dhòighean ann airson a ràdh gun d’ fhuair duine bàs, a bharrachd air ‘gun do shiubhail e’. Faodaidh sinn a ràdh gun ‘do dh’eug e’. Seo an t-ainmear ‘eug’ a’ nochdadh mar ghnìomhair.

Ann an cuid de sgìrean, cluinnear an gnìomhair ‘caochladh’, a tha a’ ciallachadh ‘atharrachadh’. ‘Chaochail Mòrag a bhon-dè’, mar eisimpleir. Seo an dòigh as cumanta ann an Siorrachd Rois. Ann am pàirtean de Shiorrachd Inbhir Nis, cluinnear ‘theirig e’ no ‘chrìoch e’. Cluinnear cuideachd ‘dh’fhalbh e’.

Nise, bu chòir dhomh rudeigin a ràdh mun ghnìomhair ‘bàsachadh’. Ann an cuid de sgìrean air tìr-mòr, cleachdaidh daoine sin airson beathaichean a-mhàin. Canaidh iad ‘bhàsaich an cù’ no ‘bhàsaich a’ bhò’. Cha chan iad uair sam bith ‘chaochail a’ bhò’ no ‘chaochail a’ chaora’. Ach, cha chan iad gun ‘do bhàsaich’ duine nas mò. Bhiodh sin mì-mhodhail.

Ach ann an àiteachan eile, is gu h-àraidh anns na h-eileanan, cleachdaidh daoine ‘bhàsaich’ airson beathaichean agus daoine. Canaidh iad, mar eisimpleir, gun do ‘bhàsaich Alasdair’ no gun do ‘bhàsaich an seann rùda’.

Agus dè tha sgrìobhte mu bhàs anns a’ Bhìoball? Uill, seo eisimpleirean à Litir an Abstoil Phòil chun nan Ròmanach. Ann an caibideil a còig, earrann a sia: ‘bhàsaich Criosd airson nan daoine neo-dhiadhaidh’; agus ann an earrann a h-ochd: ‘dh’fhuiling Criosd bàs air ar son.’ Anns an deicheamh earrann dhen t-siathamh caibideil, tha ‘gun d’ fhuair e bàs’, agus ann an caibideil a h-ochd, earrann trithead ’s a ceithir, tha: ‘Is e Criosd a fhuair bàs…’

’S e ‘fhuair bàs’ mar as trice a tha a’ nochdadh anns a’ Bhìoball. Ach chan e sin uile e. Mar eisimpleir, anns an t-Seann Tiomnadh, ann an Ciad Leabhar nan Rìgh, (caibideil a sia-deug, earrann a h-ochd-deug) tha: ‘…chaidh e a-steach do lùchairt taigh an rìgh agus loisg e taigh an rìgh os a chionn fhèin le teine, agus dh’eug e.’ Agus ann an Ciad Leabhar nan Eachdraidh, anns an aonamh earrann deug thar an dà fhichead dhen chiad chaibideil, tha: ‘Dh’eug Hadad mar an ceudna…’

Agus tha diofar dhòighean ann airson a ràdh gu bheil duine ‘marbh’. Dh’fhaodadh tu ràdh, ‘chan eil e maireann’ no ‘chan eil e an làthair’. Ach bithibh faiceallach leis an fhear mu dheireadh. Ma thèid sibh gu coinneamh, a’ coimhead airson cuideigin, is ma chuireas sibh a’ cheist, ‘càite a bheil [canaidh sinn] Dòmhnall?’ agus ma gheibh sibh an fhreagairt, ‘chan eil Dòmhnall an làthair’, ’s dòcha gum bi am fear eile dìreach a’ ciallachadh nach eil Dòmhnall aig a’ choinneimh. Dh’fhaodadh e fhathast a bhith slàn fallain ann am badeigin eile!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: eug, bàs: death; gnìomhair: verb; am Bìoball: The Bible; neo-dhiadhaidh: ungodly; dh’fhulaing: suffered; deicheamh: tenth; siathamh: sixth; faiceallach: careful.

Abairtean na Litreach: mìle beannachd aig an eug: a thousand blessings on death; ’s iomadh fear don rinn e feum: there is many a man for whom it was useful; thug a bhuam-s’ a’ chailleach bhreun: it took from me the vile old woman; cluinnear an gnìomhair ‘caochladh’:the verb ‘caochladh’ is heard; chaochail Mòrag a bhon-dè: Morag died the day before yesterday; airson beathaichean a-mhàin:for animals alone; cha chan iad gun ‘do bhàsaich’ duine nas mò: they don’t (won’t) say ‘bhàsaich duine’ either; bhàsaich an seann rùda:the old ram died; Litir an Abstoil Phòil chun nan Ròmanach: Paul’s Letter to the Romans; ach chan e sin uile e: but that’s not all (there is); ann an caibideil a h-ochd, earrann trithead ’s a ceithir: in the eight chapter, verse 34; anns an t-Seann Tiomnadh ann an Ciad Leabhar nan Rìgh: in the Old Testament, in the First Book of Kings; ann an Ciad Leabhar nan Eachdraidh:in the First Book of Chronicles; anns an aonamh earrann deug thar an dà fhichead: in the 51st verse; chan eil X an làthair: either X is dead or X is not present (hopefully the context will tell you which!)

Puing-ghràmair na Litreach: You may be a little confused as to why the verse has gun shiubhail i instead of the ‘text-book’ gun do shiubhail i.In fact, I dare say that some of you might have interpreted it as meaning gun siubhail i, which would be quite different. The do is usual, but not mandatory in everyday speech. In some places, for example in parts of Lewis, the do in such constructions is either elided to the point of virtual disappearance or is dispensed with entirely. Fear not, it is still the past tense in the active voice, meaning ‘that she died’ or, literally, ‘that she travelled’ (it is a euphemism). If it had been gun siubhail i, without lenition, it would be the future tense and, much to the bodach’s chagrin, his ‘cailleach bhreun’ would still be alive and tormenting him!

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: Tha caochladh dhòighean ann airson a ràdh gun d’ fhuair duine bàs: there are various ways of saying that a person died. Following caochladh, a noun (eg dòighean) will be in the genitive plural.

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