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78: Na Mìosan

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

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Gaelic Gàidhlig

’S e a’ chiad mhìos dhen bhliadhna, ann am Beurla – January, a tha a’ faighinn ainm bho sheann dia Ròmanach. Ach, gu h-eachdraidheil, chanadh na Sasannaich am wolf-month ris, agus ’s e an ìre mhath an aon ainm a tha againn dha ann an Gàidhlig – am Faoilleach. ’S e faol seann fhacal airson madadh-allaidh, agus bha an t-ainm Faolan (neo madadh-allaidh beag) gu math cumanta am measg fir na Gaidhealtachd o shean. Tha e againn fhathast anns an ainm-chinnidh, MacIllFhaolain, neo mar a theirear ann am Beurla, MacLellan.

Tha mi a’ dèanamh dheth gur e is coireach gu bheil am Faoilleach air a’ mhìos seo gur e sin an t-àm sam biodh na madaidhean-allaidh gu math acrach, agus sneachd air feadh na dùthcha. Thigeadh iad do na bailtean, a’ coimhead airson biadh agus, uaireannan, dheanadh iad sgrios.

Ach feumaidh mi rudeigin cudthromach a ràdh mu dheidhinn an Fhaoillich. Ged a tha sinn an-diugh ga thomhas mar co-ionann ri January, cha b’ ann mar sin a bha e o shean. Do na seann Ghaidheil, b’ e am Faoilleach an ceala-deug mu dheireadh dhen gheamhradh, agus a’ chiad cheala-deug dhen earrach. Bha sin na b’ fhaisge air a bhith co-ionann ri February, seach January.

Agus tha dearbhadh air a sin anns an t-seanfhacal seo: chan eil port a sheinneas an smeòrach san Fhaoilleach, nach gul i seachd uairean mus ruith an t-earrach. Canaidh mi sin a-rithist gus an greimich sibh air: Chan eil port a sheinneas an smeòrach san Fhaoilleach, nach gul i seachd uairean mus ruith an t-earrach. ’S gann gun cluinnear smeòrach anns an Fhaoilleach mar a tha e an-diugh – a’ chiad mhìos dhen bhliadhna. Agus seo abairt eile a bhios feumail dhuibh. Ma chluinneas sibh naidheachd nach gabh creidsinn, neo a tha gu math eu-coltach, dh’fhaodadh sibh a ràdh, “tha sin mar smeuran dubha san Fhaoilleach.

’S e an ath mhìos an Gearran a tha an-diugh co-ionann ri February. Tha am facal gearran cuideachd a’ ciallachadh “each fireann a th’ air a spothadh”, agus tha e coltach gu bheil ceangal ann eadar na dhà, agus gun deach ainm a’ bheathaich a chur air gaoth a thigeadh aig an àm sin a h-uile bliadhna. Tha an treas mìos, am Màrt, furast’ a chuimhneachadh leis gu bheil e cho coltach ri March ann am Beurla. Thàinig an dà ainm bhon Laidinn, Martius, mìos Mhars. B’ e Mars dia a’ chogaidh anns an t-seann Ròimh.

Ach, a-rithist, do na Gaidheil o shean, bhiodh am Màrt a’ gluasad anns a’ mhìosachan a rèir na h-aimsir. Bha e a’ ciallachadh dhaibhsan – an t-àm anns am biodh obair nan tuathanach a’ tòiseachadh. Chuireadh iad sìol anns a’ Mhàrt, ach chan ann ro thràth anns a’ Mhàrt. Bha e cudthromach dhaibh nach nochdadh na duilleagan bhon t-sìol gus am biodh am Màrt seachad. Agus tha sean-fhacal ann mu dheidhinn sin: Am feur a thig a-mach sa Mhàrt, thèid e a-staigh sa Ghiblean. Am feur a thig a-mach sa Mhàrt, thèid e a-staigh sa Ghiblean. Tha sin a’ ciallachadh – ma nì sibh rudeigin ro thràth, nuair nach eil an t-àm freagarrach air a shon, nach soirbhich leibh.

Agus ’s e an Giblean an ath-mhìos anns a’ mhìosachan. As dèidh sin, thig an Cèitean. Canaidh feadhainn a’ Chèitean ris, seach an Cèitean, is canaidh feadhainn eile a’ Mhàigh. Tha an Ceitean a’ ciallachadh a’ chiad phàirt dhen t-samhradh, agus bidh Gaidheil tric is minig a’ moladh a’ mhìosa seo – mar a chì sinn anns an ath litir, nuair a bheir sinn sùil air a’ Chèitean, agus air a’ chòrr de mhìosachan nan Gaidheal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: am Faoilleach (or am Faoilteach): January; ainm-cinnidh: surname (clan name); an Gearran: February (note that in Gaelic we always use the definite article with the name of each month); gearran: gelding; sìol: seed; an Giblean: April; an Cèitean: May.

Abairtean na Litreach: gu math cumanta am measg fir na Gaidhealtachd: very common amongst the menfolk of the Gaidhealtachd; uaireannan, dheanadh iad sgrios: sometimes they would plunder; tha sinn an-diugh ga thomhas mar co-ionann ri X: today we reckon on it being equivalent to X; an ceala-deug mu dheireadh dhen gheamhradh: the last fortnight of the winter; ’s gann gun cluinnear smeòrach anns an Fhaoilleach mar a tha e an-diugh: a thrush is rarely heard in the Faoilleach as it is today (ie the first month of the year); ma chluinneas sibh naidheachd nach gabh creidsinn, neo a tha gu math eu-coltach: if you hear a story that is unbelievable or most unlikely (to be true); each fireann a th’ air a spothadh: a male horse which has been castrated; tha an treas mìos furast’ a chuimhneachadh: the third month is easy to remember; b’ e Mars dia a’ chogaidh anns an t-seann Ròimh: Mars was the god of war in ancient Rome; bhiodh am Màrt a’ gluasad anns a’ mhìosachan a rèir na h-aimsir: am Màrt would move in the calendar according to the weather (ie it was a weather-month, not a strict calendar-month); nach soirbhich leibh: you will not be successful; bidh X tric is minig a’ moladh a’ mhìosa seo: X very often praises this month.

Puing ghràmair na Litreach: Mar a theirear ann am Beurla: as is said in English. Theirear represents the present and future tense of the Indicative mood of the Passive voice of the irregular verb, abair (say). Mar a theirear ann an Spàinntis, “Adios” (as is said in Spanish, “Adios”). You will already be familiar with irregularities in this verb, such as abair e!(lit. say it!); tha mi ag ràdh (I say, am saying); thuirt i (she said) and theirinn (I would say). Note that in some places, notably Argyll, theirear may be replaced by abrar. Mar a dh’abrar ann an Eadailtis, “Arrivederci” (as is said in Italian, “Arrivederci”).

Sean-fhaclan na Litreach: 3 proverbs this week: 1. Chan eil port a sheinneas an smeòrach san Fhaoilleach, nach gul i seachd uairean mus ruith an t-earrach: for every song the thrush sings in the Faoilleach , she will lament seven times before the spring is over. I think this means that there is a long time between the Faoilleach (originally at the end of winter when you might expect to hear a thrush) and the end of Spring – so don’t be in a hurry to get things done too early in the season. 2. Tha sin mar smeuran dubha san Fhaoilleach: that is like ripe bramble berries (blackberries) in January – a most unlikely event! 3. Am feur a thig a-mach sa Mhàrt, thèid e a-staigh sa Ghiblean. The grass which comes out in March will disappear in April ie if the shoots of a crop appear too soon, they will wither and die – so you must live within the constrictions of the seasons provided by nature. Perhaps there’s a good philosophical point here!

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