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201: Adhamh Fearghasdan

Litir do Luchd-ionnsachaidh - Eadar-mheadhanach Adhartach (B2)
Letter to Learners - Upper Intermediate (B2)

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Gaelic Gàidhlig

Ann an seachd-deug, seasgad ’s a seachd (1767), sgrìobh Adhamh Fearghasdan “aiste”, no leabhar ma tha sinn gu bhith fìrinneach, a rinn ainmeil e. ’S e an tiotal a bh’ air A History of Civil Society. Anns an leabhar, thug Fearghasdan sùil air mar a bha sìobhaltachd air atharrachadh tro eachdraidh is mar a bha sin air tachairt mar leasachadh nàdarrach, gun a bhith na amas aig mac an duine.

Aig an àm sin, cha robh Fearghasdan air mòran siubhail a dhèanamh ann an dùthchannan eile, ach leugh e aithrisean-siubhail aig feadhainn eile, agus bha e dhen bheachd gu robh mòran anns a’ chumantas, mar eisimpleir, eadar sìobhaltachd nan seann Ghaideal, nan Innseanach Ruadha ann an Aimeireagaidh agus nan seann Ghreugach.

Thug e bheachd air ealain is litreachas, air mar a tha an aimsir a’ toirt buaidh air modhan sluaigh, agus air a’ chàirdeas eadar meudachd sluaigh agus beartas dùthcha. Agus thug e rabhadh seachad. Thuirt e gum faodadh dùthaich a spiorad a chall, agus gun leigeadh sin le gnothaichean poileataiceach na dùthcha dhol bhuaithe.

Am measg an fheadhainn a leugh A History of Civil Society, agus a dh’ionnsaich mòran bhuaithe, bha Karl Marx. Bha aire Mharx air a tharraing leis na sgrìobh Fearghasdan mu dheidhinn na droch bhuaidh a tha na diofar ìrean ann an coimhearsnachd choimearsalta a’ toirt air daoine, gu h-àraidh an fheadhainn aig na h-ìrean as ìsle. Bha Fearghasdan a’ sgrìobhadh fada mus robh guth air coimiunachd.

’S e rud eile inntinneach a thachair co-cheangailte ri Fearghasdan gur ann anns an taigh aige a thachair Bhaltair Scott ri Raibeart Burns – an aon turas a thachair an dithis ri chèile. Cha robh Scott ach òg aig an àm.

Anns na seachdadan dhen ochdamh linn deug, chuir Fearghasdan seachad ùine ann an Geneva agus sgrìobh e aiste, a’ càineadh propaganda nan Aimeireaganach a bha ag iarraidh neo-eisimeileachd airson nan tìrean Breatannach ann an Aimeireagaidh a Tuath. An uair sin chaidh ainmeachadh mar fear de na coimiseanairean a dh’fheuchadh ri fuasgladh a lorg don eas-aonta eadar Riaghaltas Bhreatainn agus na h-Aimeireaganaich.

Ann an seachd-deug, ochdad ’s a h-aon (1781) ghabh e stròc. Dà bhliadhna as dèidh sin sgrìobh e leabhar air Eachdraidh na Poblachd Ròmanaich. Agus ann an seachd-deug, ochdad ’s a còig, leig e dheth a dhreuchd mar Phroifeasair na Feallsanachd Moralta. Ach cha robh e dìomhain. Dh’fhoillsich e leabhar ann an dà phàirt anns an robh mòran de na gliocas a bh’ air a bhith anns na h-òraidean aige aig an oilthigh.

Ann an seachd-deug, naochad ’s a trì, aig aois seachdad, dh’fhalbh e air turas mòr don Roinn Eòrpa, agus thadhail e air an Ròimh. Bha cothrom aige na h-àiteachan air an do sgrìobh e ann an Eachdraidh na Poblachd Ròmanaich fhaicinn dha fhèin.

Bha fhathast fichead bliadhna aige de shaoghal agus am measg nan àiteachan anns an do dh’fhuirich e bha na Pùballan agus Cill Rìmhinn. Chaochail e ann an ochd-deug is sia-deug (1816). Na sheann aois, sgrìobh e mòran aistidhean air feallsanachd is gnothaichean moralta.

An-diugh tha daoine eòlach air Adhamh Fearghasdan mar “Athair an Eòlais-shòisealta” agus is cinnteach gu robh e na dhuine cliùiteach aig àm nuair a bha àite mòr aig Alba ann an dùsgadh ghnothaichean inntinn anns an Roinn Eòrpa.

Ach bu toigh leam fios a bhith agam air beachd Fhearghasdain fhèin air an dualchas aige mar Ghaidheal. Mas urrainn dhuibh mo chuideachadh le fiosrachadh air a sin, bhithinn uabhasach toilichte cluinntinn bhuaibh. Beannachd leibh an-dràsta.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faclan na Litreach: aiste: essay; fìrinneach: truthful; mòran siubhail: much travel; coimhearsnachd choimearsalta: commercial society; a’ càineadh: criticizing; neo-eisimeileachd: independence; eas-aonta: disagreement; Feallsanachd Nàdarrach: Natural Philosophy; Feallsanachd Moralta: Moral Philosophy; na Pùballan: Peebles; Cill Rìmhinn: St Andrews;

Abairtean na Litreach: mar a bha sìobhaltachd air atharrachadh tro eachdraidh: how civilization had changed through history; mar leasachadh nàdarrach: as a natural development; gun a bhith na amas aig mac an duine: without being a product of human design (a human aim); gu robh mòran anns a’ chumantas: that there was much in common; thug e bheachd air ealain is litreachas: he gave his opinion on arts and literature; mar a tha an aimsir a’ toirt buaidh air modhan sluaigh: how the climate affects a people’s manners; an càirdeas eadar meudachd sluaigh agus beartas dùthcha: the relationship between population size and the wealth of a nation; fada mus robh guth air coimiunachd: long before communism was heard of; ghabh e stròc: he suffered a stroke; thadhail e air an Ròimh: he visited Rome; bha fhathast fichead bliadhna aige de shaoghal: he still had twenty years of his life; na sheann aois: in his old age; athair an eòlais-shòisealta: the father of sociology; dùsgadh ghnothaichean inntinn: waking of intellectualism (the Scottish Enlightenment); bhithinn toilichte cluinntinn bhuaibh: I would be pleased to hear from you.

Abairtean na Litreach: There are two uses in the Litir this week for the prepositional pronoun bhuaithe (from him/it [masc]) which I mentioned in Litir 189 on January 31 this year. This could be a difficult word to deal with if you do not have a good dictionary for some do not mention it. Thankfully the newest one (the Gaelic-English Dictionary by Colin Mark) does, and also explains idiomatic uses. The second incidence in the Litir, agus a dh’ionnsaich mòran bhuaithe (who learned a lot from it) is fairly straightforward, but the second, gun leigeadh sin le gnothaichean poileataiceach na dùthcha dhol bhuaithe, is a more idiomatic use. A’ dol bhuaithe means declining, going downhill, getting in a bad state, so that the meaning of the phrase is “that that would let political matters [in the country] deteriorate.” Note that it does not matter whether we area dealing with masculine or feminine objects – the word is always the masculine , bhuaithe. If things are steadily and relentlessly getting worse, you might say to somebody, “Tha iad a’ sìor dhol bhuaithe.” Hopefully, it’s not a phrase you would use too often!

Gnàthas-cainnt na Litreach: Mas urrainn dhuibh mo chuideachadh le fiosrachadh: if you can (are able to) help me with information.

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